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Edited by Bkcaeb C. Ste^keb. 
I»-a"blisliecl "by a-atliority of* tlie State 

VOLUME XLIV (Assembly Series, Volume 21) 

Proceedings and Acts of the Asse^ibly (1745-1747) 

This volume of the Archives is now ready for distribution. The attention 
of members of the Society who do not now receive the Archives is called to 
the liberal provision made by the Legislature, which permits the Society to 
furnish to its own members copies of the volumes, as they are published from 
year to year, at the mere cost of paper, presswork, and binding* This cost is 
at present fixed at one dollar, at which price members of the Society may 
obtain one copy of each volume published. For additional copies, a price of 
three dollars is charged. 

This volume carries on the legislative records of the Province for three 
years of petty bickering and faultfinding between the Governor and the repre- 
sentatives of the people. In 1745, several popular bills were vetoed by Gov- 
ernor Bladen who had lost his hold upon the Assembly and, forgetting his 
dignity, scolded the Delegates. On their part, they were fussily insistent 
upon their privileges. The main object of summoning the new Assembly in 
1745 was to secure an appropriation for the garrison at Louisbourg on Cape 
Breton Island — ^a fortress recently brilliantly captured by the New England 
provincial troops and the British fleet. The Lower House tacked on to a bill 
for this purpose a provision for a Provincial Agent in London. The Upper 
House denounced this tacking and, as the Lower House refused to recede from 
its position, the bill failed. The proceedings as to three contested elections 
are of interest, and a large number of yea and nay votes are recorded, which 
afford a method of ascertaining that the Eastern Shore and Annapolis gener- 
ally belonged to the Proprietary Party, while Southern Maryland was Anti- 
Proprietary. In March, 1745/6, another new Assembly met, summoned be- 
cause of the Jacobite Pebellion in England and of the fear that the Iroquois 
might shift their alliance to the French, but nothing was done. 

The Assembly again met in June, 1746 and failed to pass bills for the pur- 
chase of arms and ammunition, for the regulation of officer's fees, and for the 
administration of bankrupt's affairs, owing to dissension. Ordinaries were 
directed to be taxed to provide funds to carry on the war in Canada. In 
November a brief session passed a law for the purchase of provisions for the 
troops raised in the Province. Governor Samuel Ogle returned to Maryland 
and, sueeeeding Bladen as governor, met with the Assembly in May 1747. 
A long session of nearly two months resulted in the passage of twenty-eight 
acts, some of which were of very considerable importance: such as an assize 
law for trial of matters of fact in the county where they may arise and a 
tobacco inspection law, which was included in a measure for the regulation 
of official fees. A tax was also laid on tobacco exported so as to purchase 
arms and ammunition and another tax for the use of the Governor. The sale 
of strong liquors, the running of horse races and the tumultuous concourse 
of negroes during the Quaker Yearly Meetings on West and Tred Avon 
Rivers were forbidden. A two day session in December 1747, was fruitle^is, 
as the Delegates refused to make an appropriation for the war. At each 
session, the question of setting apart the western part of the Province as 
Frederick County came up, but was not yet settled. 

A brief appendix contains, among other documents, a petition from Elk- 
ridge, showing how little men had a vision of Baltimore Town's growth, and a 
quasi passport to four Germans wishing to return to Europe for a visit. 



H. lEVTNE Keyser ]Memoeial Builmkg, 
201 IW. Monument Street, 





Correspondinff Becretwry Recording Secretary 




The General Officers 
AND Representatives of Standing Committees: 
JESSE N. BO WEN, Representing the Trustees of the Athenaeum. 

J. HALL PLEASANTS, Committee on Publication. 

RICHARD M. DUVALL, " Committee on the Library. 

WILLIAM INGLE, Committee on Finance. 

JAMES D. IGLEHART, " Committee on Membership. 

HOWARD SILL, " Committee on the Gallery. 

JOHN L. SANFORD, Committee on Addresses. 

FRANCIS B. CULVER, « Committee on Genealogy. 


1866. Gm)RGE PEABODY, Gift, |20,000 

1892. J. HENRY STICKNEY, Bequest,. . . . 1,000 

1909. ISAAC F. NICHOLSON, Gift, 1,000 

1915. MENDES COHEN, Bequest, .... 5,000 

1916. ISAAC HENRY FORD, Bequest, .... 1,000 

1916. ISAAC TYSON NORRIS, Gift, 1,000 


Gift of the buildings and grounds of the Society. 

1919. MISS ELEANOR S. COHEN, , , .Historical Relics and $ 300 

1920. HON. HENRY STOCKBRIDGE, . . Gift, ..... 1,000 
1923. DRAYTON MEADE HITE, .... Bequest, .... 6,000 

1923. J. WILSON LEAKIN, .... Historical Relics and $10,000 


Preparation of J. Wilson Leakin Room and 

Contributions to its collection. 
192G. MISS ELEANOR S. COHEN, , . . Gift, 1,000 




Limms OF Moixy awd Hetty Telghman. Edited hy J, Hall 

Pleasants, M.D., 123 

The Worcester Couniy Militia of 1794. Edited hy Um-ry 

Franklin Covington, - - -149 

Washington's Relations to the Eastern Shoeb of Maeyland. 

Paul E, Titsworth, Ph,D,, 170 

St. John's Chiirch, Queen Caroline Parish, Howard County. 

Henry J. Berkley, - -- -- -- -- 179 

Thb Life of Thomas Johnson. Edward 8, Delaplaine, - - - 181 

Pearce-Levy Bible Rbccmrds, 201 

Extracts from Account and Lbh^ter Books of Dr. Charles 

-Carroll of Annapolis, 207 

Proceedings op the Society, 213 

Committee on PuHications 



)|5/) 3C '/-S-'A 


Vol. XXI, JUNE, 1926. No. 2. 


Eighteenth Centtjry Gossip of Two Maryland Girls. 
Edited by J. Hall Pleasants. 

{Continued from VoL XXI, 1, p. 3§.) 

Since tlie appearance of the first instalment of these Letters 
in the March number of the Magazine j the editor^s attention 
has been called to certain facts which make him feel that the 
correspondence begins a year or two earlier than was sup- 
posed. It will be recalled that Letter undated^ describing 
the wedding of Colonel Joseph Forman and Polly Hemsley, 
was given the date 1783 or 1784. The editor is informed that 
the family Bible, which formerly belonged to General Benja- 
min Chambers of Kent Oounty, containing many Forman 
entries, states that this marriage took place ^t Cloverfields in 
1782. It seems quite possible that Letters II and III may 
also have been written as early as the year 1782. 

The editor is indebted to several readers who have sent him 
notes of interest upon persons mentioned in the letters. These 
will be printed at the conclusion of the series. 





Thursday Morning [1785 ?] 
Tho^ I knew that the Turkey pointers were going off this 
Morning, yet credit me my dear Polly, it never till this moment 
ocnri^'d to me, that you wou'd have the pleasure of their Com- 
pany. My forgetfulness wou'd be rather extraordinary if I had 
not been much engag'd lately. Yesterday week we were agree- 
ably surprised by the arrival of Uncle and Aunt Tilghman.'*^ 
They left us on Tuesday, accompanied by Sister Nancy, who 
contrived to creep into the Chariot with them, a post that (if 
it were possible) I wou'd fain have occupied. Nobody is more 
ingenious than myself in planning excursions, WouM that I 
was equally expert in executing them, but there it must be 
ownM I fail, which my being here at this time is a proof of, for 
I was determined upon going to Talbot with Billy.*^ Tommy 
went to Rock Hall yesterday, in hopes of getting to Baltimore 
time enough to let Tench cross the Bay with Nancy and M.^^ 
Carrol,** which he cou'd not do unless Tommy was in the 
Counting House. 

*o The " Turkey Pointers " cannot be certainly identified. The rent rolls 
show tracts of this name in Cecil, Talbot and Dorchester Counties. 

*^ " Uncle and aunt Tilghman " were probably the Honorable Matthew 
Tilghman (1718-1790), the distinguished Maryland statesman, of Bayside, 
Talbot County, and his wife Anna Lloyd (1723-1794), parents of Major 
Lloyd Tilghman, who had married the writer's sister Elizabeth. 

Billy" is William Tilghman (1756-1827), the writer's brother, after- 
wards Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the Maryland 
Convention to ratify the Federal Constitution; represented Kent County 
in the Maryland Assembly 1788-1790, and was a member of the Maryland 
State Senate, 1791-1792. In 1793 he removed to Philadelphia, where after 
holding various judicial positions he was made Chief Justice of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1806. He married, July 1, 1794, Margaret Elizabeth AUen of 
Philadelphia, who died September 9, 1798, leaving one child, Elizabeth 
Tilghman (died June 17, 1817), who married Benjamin Chew (1793-1864) 
a son of Benjamin Chew (1758-1844), and a grandson of Chief Justice 
Benjamia Chew (1722-1810). 

43 « Tommy '* was Thomas Ringgold Tilghman, born August 17, 1765, 
died unmarried December 29, 1789, the writer's youngest brother. 

** " Mrs. Carrol " was Mrs. Charles Carroll, n^e Margaret Tilghman, the 


Our family is now reduc'd almost to nothing. If you cou'd 
be here how happy wou'd it make me. Set your wits to 
work my dear Polly, and try if you can bring it about. You 
need not be afraid of having your head tum"d with gaiety. 
Assemblies and Balls are done with, and the general Court 
has drawn all our Beaux away. An inviting prospect you will 
say. However your loving Cousins still remain, and you may 
be sure of often eating Beef with them in the greatest per- 
fection and variety. Betsy Worrell was married last Thurs- 
day and so superb a Wedding was never seen here. A number of 
most elegant Cloaths, 6 Brides Men and Maids.^' Miss Wor- 

daughter of the Honorable Matthew Tilghman (1718-1790), and the widow 
of Charles Carroll, Barrister (1723-1783), of Mount Clare, Baltimore, the 
distinguished Maryland statesman and the author of the Maryland Bill 
of Kights. 

" Betsy Worrell " is Ann Elizabeth Worrell, the daughter of William 
and Ann Worrell of Eairy Meadow, Kent Co., and the sister of Dr. Edward 
Worrell (1753-1804). The letter is undated and the exact date of her 
marriage is uncertain. She married as his second wife Capt. John Hyland, 
Jr. (1746-1815) of Cecil and later of Kent Co. A chart pedigree of the 
Hyland family in the Historical Society gives the date of the marriage as 
Dec. 17, 1786, which is obviously incorrect, as Col, Tench Tilghman, men- 
tioned in the letter, died April 18, 1786. Furthermore, Polly says the 
marriage took place on Thursday, while Dec. 17th, 1786, fell on Tuesday. 
Mrs. Ann Elizabeth (Worrell) Hyland died in 1826, leaving three children, 
viz. William, Stephen and Sarah W. Hyland. 

*^ " The 6 Brides Men and Maids." It would appear that there were 
six bridesmen and six bridesmaids and that Molly enumerated only the 
latter. (1) Miss Worrell^' is doubtless one of the two elder of the 
bride's four sisters, Ann, Mary, Francina and Sarah. Ann died unmarried 
in 1819. Mary married about this time William Pearce of Kent Co. 
Sarah married John Wroth. (2) Miss " Yan Dyke" was certainly Sarah, 
the daughter of Dr. Thomas Van Dyke (d. 1787) of Kent, as her sister 
Mary Elizabeth Wilhelmina was too young at this date to have served. 
Dr. Van Dyke married Mary (1742-1796) the daughter of Richard Graves 
of Buck Neck, Kent Co. Sarah Van Dyke married a year or two later 
Dr. Andrew Wiesenthal (1762-1798), a prominent Baltimore physician, 
leaving issued by him (see also footnote 102). (3) Miss " Ch-esftem" 
was doubtless either Maria or Ann, daughters of Richard Gresham (died 
1780) of Gresham 's College, Kent Co. (4) Miss *'BarroU" was one of the 
three daughters of the Rev. William Barroll (1734-1778), rector of St. 
Stephen's parish, Cecil Co., and his wife Ann Williamson, the latter a wid- 



rell, Van Dyke, Gresham, Barrolj Gordon, and Lnkit. Between 
fifty and sixty people were present at tlie Ceremony, who danced 
till 4 o'clock. Some of the Company retired at twelve being 
afraid (I suppose) of injuring their healths by keeping such 
riotous hours. They kept up the Ball till Monday, and then 
went to middle !N'eck, accompanied by 6 Carriages well filled. 
The Bride and Brides groom led the Van in a new Phaet(m. 
Give my Love to Aunt Pearce, and tell her she is very cruel 
in her accusation of out of sight out of mind." I have the 
happiness of being conscious that the saying is not applicable 
to me in regard to her, and if she oou'd look into my heart she 
wouM be convinc'd of it. I must beg leave to remind her that 
I only promised to write to her while sister Betsy and Dicky 
Relpe were ill, for I plainly told her that I had not genius 
enough to produce Letters, unless she would answer me now 
' and then. I shall be happy if she will accept of my Corre- 
spondence on the above terms but if she does not like them. 
I shall be compelled to silence, thro^ very poverty of invention. 
Aunt T[ilghman] says that Henny is quite well, and has grown 
fat, not partially so, which, I was glad to hear. If it were pos- 

ow then living in Chestertown. These three daughters were : Ann BarroU, 
born Sept. 16, 1762; Sarah Barroll^ born Sept. 26, 1769, who married, June 
17, 1806, as his first wife Hichard Frisly (1777-1846) of Fairlce, Kent Co., 
and died s. p.; Abigail Barroll, (5) Miss Gordon" is one of the elder 
daughters of Charles Gordon (1721-1786), a Scotchman, who came to 
Maryland about 1750 and practiced law in Kent Co. He was a Tory. He 
married twice. By his first wife, Alice George, he had a daughter, !Mary 
Grordon who married, probably prior to this date, a Captain Veazey, and d, 
s. p. It seems probable that the bridesmaid was one of the elder daughters 
by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Col. Joseph Nicholson of 
Chestertown, whom he married, Dec. 26, 1764, and by whom he had issue: 
(a) Hannah, b. Nov. 6, 1765, mar. James McLean; (b) Elizabeth Ann, 
mar. about 1789, as his first wife. Judge Thomas Worrell (a first cousin 
of the bride Betsey Worrell); (c) Sarah Nicholson, b. 1768; (d) Anna. 
Maria, b. Jan. 7, 1771, mar. Dec. 4, 1796, as his second wife Judge Thomas. 
Worrell; (e) Alice, d. in childhood; (f ) Joseph Nicholson, b. Oct. 9, 1775; 
(g) John, d. in childhood; (h) Capt. Charles, b. Nov. 14, 1778, 0. S. Navy. 
(6) Miss "Lukit*^ cannot be identified. No family of this n&rm «.pf*arft 
on the Eastern Shore in the Census of 1790. 


sible, I wou^d wish that it be defered for one twelve Month at 
least. I had no business to begin this page, for it is ten to one 
that my cousias have given me Ae slip. 
With my love to all, believe me 

txnly yours 

M. T. 


Tuesday Mornrag [Spring of 1T85] 
I was put almost out of my wits with joy yesterday by re- 
ceiving a packet from England, a pleasure which I have long 
expected with the utmost impatience, and anxiety. My joy 
was in some measure checFd at finding that my Brother Dick '^'^ 
was actually gone to India. 

He writes on the 11*^ of January, a few hours before he 
set off for the Downs where he was to embark. He says that 
his health is quite confirm^, and his prospects very advan- 
tageous, but I still wish that he had remain^ in England. 
I cannot get over my fears of the fatal Climate of Bengal. He 
sends us some Shawls, Muslin^ and other things, which are in 

He sends one of the Shawls to Grandmamma [Francis], 
which I am very glad of, for I am sure such a proof of his 
affection, and remembrance will be pleasing to her. The most 
trifling things are valuable from iliose we love. 

I have a long Letter from Phil,*' who is still at Plymouth with 

** Brother Dick ** is Richard Tilghman, born December 17, 1746, died 
unmarried, November 24, 1796. All that is definitely known about him is 
learned from these letters. He is thought to have been a Tory in his 
sympathies, and seems at this time to have been engaged in the East 
Iiidia trade, in which he is said to have made a fortune. 

*^"Phil" is Philemon Tilghman, born November 29, 1760, died January 
11, 1797. He was an oflScer in the British Navy. He had married, previous 
to this date, Harriet Milbanke, daughter of Admiral Mark Milbanke, H. N. 
His return to Maryland is referred te in later letters. A fuller iketek 
will be found in footnote 123. 



Admiral Millbank. He is very well, and writes in his usual 
wild way. He says he is in high spirits at having just heard 
that I was on the recovery, when he fear'd a very different 
account. He cou'd not have given me a more flattering reason 
for his gaiety. I will not apologize to you my dear Polly, for 
saying so much about my Brothers. If I know your heart, 
your feelings wouM be similar to mine on the like occasion, 
and you can allow for my indulging myself on a Subject, which 
is so interesting to me. 

There is always a mixture of melancholy in the pleasure 
I receive of getting Letters from England. They forcibly re- 
mind me that my Brothers are far, far, distant, that there is 
a thousand chances against my ever seeing either of them again, 
and that at best, a long time must elapse before such an event 
can take place. But I am growing too serious, and will there- 
fore change the subject for one that you can at present relish 
better than myself, which is the play that the Collegians are 
to act next at the <;omencement. After much debate and irreso- 
lution, they have at last fix^'d on the tragedy of Atoners,^^ and 
Billy Hemsley is to act the princess Ormisinda. I dare say you 
will make a point of being here on the occasion when I tell you 
that Mike Earle is to represent Maria, the Heroine of the 
f^ce, which is to be the Citizen. Figure to yourself my dear 

49 u Collegians " referred to are the students of Washington College, 
Chestertown, the corner-stone of which had been laid in 1783. The presi- 
dent at this time was the Rev. William Smitti, afterwards provost of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

The Tragedy of Atoners " has not heen identified and may not he 
the correct title of the play. The " Billy Hemsley " who was to take the 
part of "Ormisinda'' was William Helmsley (17G6-1825), the son of Wil- 
liam Helmsley, M. C. (1736-1812) of Cloverfields, and a brother of Polly 
Hemsley, whose wedding is described in letter I ; he took his A. B. at 
Washington College in 1785. (See footnote 4.) 

The farce " The Citizen," by Arthur Murphy, first performed at Dniry 
Lane Theatre, London in 1761, had been given at the New Theatre in 
Baltimore, Jan. 29, 1782, by Mr. Wall's company. 

" Mike Earle," who took the part of the heroine, was Michael the son 
of James Earle (1734-1810) of Queen Anne Co.; he was a first cousin of 
Polly Pearce. (See footnote 7.) 


Polly, tliat antique face of his, for a blooming young Girl just 
from the Boarding School. It will really be too farcical. 

You were fortunate in being at Church when the Bride and 
her train made their pompous entry. It is astonishing to me 
that persons in her situation can have the firmness to provoke 
the eyes of a Crowded Church, by so much parade and finery. 
She ought to be answerable for the envy which she rais'd in 
many a heart by her splendor. I fancy devotion gave place to 
mere earthly admiration in most of the Congregation. If I was 
in the humour, and if it was prudent I couM give you some 
curious Anecdotes of the Wedding, but for both reasons I must 
defer them till I see you. 

I am sorry to hear that Aunt Pearce is not well. I wish she 
wou'd xide down and see me. It wou'd do her good, md give 
me great pleasure. Do propose it to her. 

The weather is most delightful. 

I hear George enquiring for my Letter, so I must bid you 
adieu. M. T. 


Bay Side August 5 [1785] 
I had begun to think my dear Polly, that I was entirely 
forgotten by all the World beyond twenty Miles of this place, 
when two Day^ ago I receivM a charming Packet of Letters 
aanong which was one from jour Ladyship, for which you 
will accept my thanks in due form. 

How unlucky was I in not being able to see Aunt Pearce. 
I maneuvred a thousand ways to bring it about but my evil 
genius prevail'd and as I was not happy enough (any more than 
yourself) to be mistress of an air Balloon, I was oblig'd to give 
the matter up. 

I have lately spent tm days at Perry Tilghmans very agree- 

There is no due to whose wedding this refers. 
Perry Tilghman is Col. Peregrine Tilghman (1741-1807) of Hope, 
Talbot Co., a first cousin of the writer; he was the son of Col. Richard 



ably. I retum'd last Simday. Never say I want resolution 
after the adventures of that day. In the first place I broiFd 
6 Miles by Water, to the Bay Side Church in such a sun, it 
was enough to coddle common flesh. I was then so stupified 
with old Gordons slow croaking, that I began to dream a dozen 
times before the Sermon was over, and finally I got into the 
Chariot with Aunt Tilghman,^^ who met me by appointment, 
and encountered a perpetual Cloud of Dust, which prevented 
our seeing the Horses Heads or speaking a word lest we shou'd 
be choak^d. I came off alive it's true but sufferM ao much in 
the battle, that I have made a Vow to say my prayers at home 
till it rains, which I begin to think it never will again. . 

How often my dear Polly do I wish for you, particularly 
when the walking hour arrives, and I sally out by mys^. 
O this Henny ^'^ of ours is the saddest Creature you can conceive. 
If she drags her bloated self to the Wind Mill, she thinks so 
prodigious an exertion entitle^ her to groan and complain the 
whole Evening, till nine o' Clock, when she departs, and is 
seen no more till the next morning. Wow is it not a melancholy 

Tilghman (1705-1766) of the Hermitage. He married Deborah Lloyd, 
daughter of Col. Robert Lloyd (1712-1770) of Hope, and his wife Anna 
Maria Tilghman. 

" " Old Gordon ** is the Rev. John Gordon, a native of Scotland, ordained 
in 1745. He was at first Rector of St. Anne's, Annapolis, from 1745 to 
1749, but in 1750 became Rector of St. Michael's, Talbot Co., referred to 
here as the Bay Side Church, where he remained until his death, which 
occurred in 1789 or 1790, at the age of 70. 

" Aunt Tilghman " was probably Mrs. Matthew Tilghman^ n6e Anna 
Lloyd (1723-1794), the mother of Molly's brother-in-law Lloyd Tilghman 
of Bay Side, with whom she was then staying. 

" Henny " is course, the writer's sister Henrietta Maria, the wife of 
Lloyd Tilghman. Their eldest child Anna Tilghman was born a few months 
later, December 31, 1785. It may be as well to enumerate here the known 
children of Lloyd Tilghman and his wife. The order of birth of only the 
three eldest is known. (1) Anna Tilghman, b. Dec. 31, 1785; mar. (as 
his second wife) John Tilghman of Centreville. (2) Henrietta Maria 
Tilghman, b. Mar. 30, 1787, mar. Alexander Hemsley. (3) Mary Tilghman, 
b. Jan. 15, 1789, probably d. in childhood. (4) James Tilghman, b. Feb. 
5, 1793, mar. Ann Schoemaker of Philadelphia. (5) Lloyd Tilghman. 
(6) Matthew Tilghman. (7) Elizabeth Tilghman, d. in infancy. 



thing to see a young person give tiemselveg up to such horrid 
ways, because they are married? I declare it robs me of all 
patience. I again repeat, 0 that you were here What charming 
tete a tete walks shou'd I have. A fine Lady wou'd expire at 
the Idea of a female tete a tete, hut you have been some what 
us'd to such sort of things, and will therefore bear it. It is 
a selfish wish in me too, for, what signifies lying — ^this place is 
cruelly lonesome. I am not averse to a decent portion of soli- 
tude, hut it is possible to have too much of the best thing. I 
am sometimes worried to death with seeing nobody. I believe 
I have committed an Irishism, but no matter. Alas ! my dear 
Poly the 'Country is no longer an Arcadia, where a gentle Shep- 
herd is to he met with under every shady Tree. The sports of 
the green are no more, or at least I met with none of them. 

The only Beau within my reach is the serene Hugh of 
Huntingdon, and I am sure he is what the Philosophers have 
so long been, in search of, a perfect Vacuum. If you shou'd 
stumble on any of the learned tribe, pray send them to me, 
and I will conduct them to our neighbour. After these my 
complaints, you will not wonder at receiving no entertainment 
from my Letter. News, which is the life of Correspondence, 
is a Commodity not dealt in here. What on earth cou'd induce 
you to ask me about Mat Tilghman:'s Wedding. It was really 
sending from New Castle for Coals. Why Ohild, are you not 

" The serene Hugh of Huntingdon is Hugh Sherwood of Huntingdon, 
Talbot Co. From the reference to him here and in later letters he does 
not seem to have found favor in Molly^s eyes. It is probably the same 
Hugh Sherwood for whose marriage to an unidentified Elizabeth Tilghman 
a Talbot Co. license was issued Dec, 1795. 

"•"Mat Tilghman" is Matthew Tilghman (bom June 5, 1760), son of 
Edward Xilghman (1713-1786) of Wye, Queen Anne Co., by his third wife 
Julianna Carroll. He was a first cousin both of the writer and the 
recipient of this letter. He was speaker of the House of Delegates in 1791, 
He married, probably in 1785, Sarah, the daughter of Thomas Smyth 
(1730-1819), of Trumpington, a wealthy resident of Kent Co. Their eldest 
child Edward Tilghman was horn July 20, 1786, and died Dec. 6, 1860. 
They had two other children, Henry and Sarah Tilghman. 


Mmn^Am> m^^mcA^ i[a@azinx. 

in tlie high road of intelligemoe ? eigkt negociating Letters in 
your hands at once, and yet ask information of me. You have 
certainly lost your wits, or know not how to make use of them 
which is much the same thing. 

If you have received the threatened visit you were a fool 
for acting the speaking Trumpet for nothing. 1^11 engage I 
wou'd have cleft her ears with so many direct questions, that 
she wou'd have been glad to let me into the secret for Peace 
sake. Sister Betsy tells me that the tea Tables at Chester Town 
are obliged to Miss Piner for furnishing them with conversa- 
tion, three Weeks have beheld Bordley at the feet of the 
languishing fair, and it is feared she will at last banish him. 
She may now boast of subduing the extremes of Stupidity and 
brilliancy in her new and old admirer, from which we may 
conclude that a medium will at last be her choice. I wonder 
she does not like B. they have both so large a portion of the 
attic Salt that they might be flint and steel to each other. So 
Harry is at last to be happy. I commend the Lady for not 
surrendering at the first summons — ^that wou'd have been cow- 
ardly indeed and I commend him as much for not being dis- 

" Miss Piner " and " Mr. Bordley " have not been certainly Identified. 
But the former was probably either Sarah or Mary Piner, daughters of 
Mrs. Sarah Piner, the widow of Thomas Piner of Kent Oo. Sarah Piner 
died unmarried in 1826. Mary Piner married about 1787 Joseph Wiekes 
of Kent Co. "Mr. Bordley" was probably John Beale Bordley, Jr. 
(1764-1815), usually known simply as John Bordley, son of the distin- 
guished John Beale Bordley, Sr. (1727-1804). The latter lived successively 
in Annapolis, in Joppa, Baltimore Co., on Wye Island, Queen Anne Co., 
and in Philadelphia where he spent his last years. It is not believed that 
"Mr. Bordley" was successful in his suit, although it is learned from 
later letters (see Letter XI) that he married not long afterwards. It is 
certain, however, that he married secondly Aug. 2, 1798, in Baltimore, 
Catherine Starck, the daughter of Gen. Benjamin N. Starck. John Bordley, 
his second wife and his father-in-law are buried at his plantation on 
Worton Creek, Kent Co. (See also footnotes 85, 132 and^ri58.) 

" Harry " is, of course, Henry Ward Pearce, Jr. ( 1T180-1805 ) , whose 
engagement is here announced to Anna Maria Tilghman (1759-1834) the 
daughter of Col. Richard Tilghman (1705-1766) of the Hermitage — see 
footnotes 2 and 8. 


Iiearten'd at one, two, or three repulsies. So you are not for a 
long siege, very well Polly some day or other those words shall 
rise in judgment against you, depend on it. At present re- 
member me to all yours, and and M^^ Earle. My poor name 
is fairly distanc'd. 

J ohnny Francis is going to be married to a Miss Brown of 
Rhode Island. Peggy Chew says so, and that the Wedding 
is to be soon, these young Spriggs are all marrying. 

[M. T.] 

Miss Pearce 

At James Tilghman's Esq^ 
Chester Town. 


Wednesday Night [Oct. 11, 1785] 
I almost wish, my dear Polly, that Johnny [Eelfe] had not 
just called to tell me that Billy BarroU was going to 'Cecil 
tomorrow. If I had not known of the opportunity, you couM 
not have expected to hear from me, and I have been so hard at 
work all day, that I am almost blind. It was unlucky on Satur- 
day, that Billy had not been gone an hour, before Lloyd and 
Henny arriv'd. Had you known of her being here, I hope we 
should have seen you before this, unless you are not well enough, 

Johnny Francis" is the writer's first cousin John Francis (born 
1763), son of Tench Francis, Jr. (1730-1800) of Philadelphia and his wife 
Anne \villing, but the marriage did not take place until March, 1788, when 
he married Abby, daughter of the Hon. John Brown, the leading merchant 
of Providence, R. L Their son John Brown Francis (1791-1844) became 
Governor of Rhode Island and U. S. Senator. 

•""I'eggy Chew" is Peggy Oswald Chew (1760-1824), the daughter of 
Chief Justice Benjamin Chew of Phiiadelphia. She married. May 18, 1787, 
Gen. John Eager Howard of "Belvedere," Baltimore. (See footnote 98.) 

""Billy Barren " is William BarroU (1764-1834), the eldest son of 
the Rev. William Barroll, Rector of St. Stephen^s parish, Cecil Co., and 
his wife Anne Williamson. The latter, at this time a widow, was living 
in Chestertown. William Barroll married 1st, 1788 Lucretia Edmondson 
and 2nd, Sarah Hands, leaving issue by both wives (see footnote 46). 



which I am not willing tlr^ liiink is the case. Henny leases us 
on Monday and she begs you will tiy to comC; if it is but for 
one day. I heartily join in the same request, for exclusive of 
the pleasure of seeing you, I think the ride wou'd do you good. 
She has been to all the Stores today, hunting for Dimitty, for a 
Cloak, Mantle and Tarious little uses, which has tir'd her so 
much, that she begs you will excuse her not writing. I suppose 
we must make allowances for. her state, and condition, which is 
really immense. She and Miss T.®^ are at my Elbow, amusing 
themselves with a sober game at Piquet 

Uncle Ned [Tilghman] died on Monday Afternoon [Oct. 
9, 1785]. My father, and Lloyd, went to Wye on Sunday, 
and are not yet returned. I dare say, the family there, (after 
the shock which the death of a parent must occasion) will 
feel happier than they have been for this Month past. 
To see a person one loves suffering for a length of time, when 
there is not the most distant hope of their recovery, must be 
worse than death itself. Poor M^® Oadwalader ®^ haB been al- 

«*"Miss T." is proljably applied facetiously to the writer's sister 
"Nancy" or Anna Maria Tilghman. 

««" Uncle Ned" is Col. Edward Tilghman (1713-1786) of Wye, Queen 
Anne Co, He was High Sheriff and Justice of Queen Anne Co., Speaker 
of the House, Keeper of the Rolls for the Eastern Shore, and had been a 
member of the Stamp Act Congress. He had married three times : first 
Anna Maria, daughter of Maj. William Turbutt; second Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Chew of Dover, Delaware, and third Juliana, daughter of 
Dominic Carroll. He was tke father of ten children, leaving issue by all 
three wives. 

" Mrs. Cadwalader " is Williamina, the second wife of Gen. John 
Cadwalader, formerly of Pennsylvania, but at this time of Kent Co., Md. 
Gen. Cadwalader died Feb, 11, 1786. He was the son of Dr. Thomas 
Cadwalader of Philadelphia. He married first, Oct., 1768, Elizabeth Lloyd 
(born Jan. 10, 1742), daughter of Col. Edward Lloyd of Wye, Talbot Co., 
and had a daughter Maria (1776-1811), who married Gen. Samuel 
Ringgold. Gen. Cadwalader married second, Jan. 30, 1779, Williamina 
Bond (bom 1753), daughter of Br. Phineas Bond, Sr. (17177-1773) of 
Philadelphia and a sister of Phineas Bond, Jr. (1749-1816), at this 
time British Consul. Gen. Cadwalader had three children by this second 
marriage, (1) Thomas (1779-1841), (2) Francis (1781-1843), (3) John 


most at the point of death, and is still very ill. About a Week 
ago she had a dead Child, a Month before she expected. They 
sent for her Mother on Sunday. Do my dear Polly, try to come 
down before Monday. It will be a long time before Henny 
comes up again, and you find by experience, that it is difficult 
for you to see her at the Bay side. I shall probably go to 
Baltimore soon, and I wou'd like to see you before I go. I 
suppose you have heard that your fathers new Horse took the 
Purse at Annapolis. General Cad[walader] made a good 
bargain, as it has tum'd out. 

•With my love to all believe me evt§r yours. 

M. Tilghman 

Miss Pearce 

Poplar Neck 
Mr Barrel! 


Chester Town April 13 [1Y86] 
Why my dear Polly what lamentable complaints do you make 
of my long and cruel silence, as you are pleas'd to term it. The 
attack was quite unexpected, afS you have seen from my last 
Letter. Indeed you are very saucy — ^much more so than I am. 
As we have been equally (yes, equally) negligent, the same con- 
sciousness that prevented my accusation, ought to have re- 

es ft jt^Q purse at Annapolis." This refers to the Annapolis races which 
had been revived March 1, 1783, by the Jockey Club, and which had 
been suspended during the Revolution. Among the members of the re- 
organized club were Henry Ward Pearce, Sr. and Gen. John Cadwalader. 
The Maryland Gazette for Oct. 13, 1785 contains these items: "Annapolis, 
Oct. 13 — On Thursday last [Oct. 6] the jockey club purse of 100 guineas 
was run over the course near this city and was won by Mr. Pearce's horse 
' Hotspur.' " This is followed by a later note in the same issue, " Yesterday 
[Oct. 12] afternoon a match was run over the course near this city for 
100 guineas by Mr. Hamersley's brown horse Spry and Mr. Pearce's grey 
horse Hotspur, which was won by Spry." Molly had heard of the victory 
of Hotspur, but did not suspect that he was t© lone to Spry the day after 
she wrote these lines. 


straiu'd yours. But it was my bad example that kept you from 
writing — really an excellent reason. I am sorry tho' that you 
had not time to frame a better one — ^but hurry is a great enemy 
to invention. You are very ready to plead my example when 
it suits you but I cou'd never get you to copy me in writing 
twice a Week, as I have done more than once. I know some 
people will say that you shew'd your Wisdom by prefering the 
last imitation to the first, my own family, for instance, whose 
complaint of the length of my unlucky epistles, prove them to 
be the most ungrateful, and provoking Creatures in the World. 
You may credit me that all of them made me promise to write 
pailicularly, by every oportunity, public and private and well 
do they repay me for keeping my promise, tho a squalling Child, 
and Lady in the straw, were often my only subjects. Pleasant 
ones you'll say, so pleasant that you may well be discontented at 
my not having treated you with them, and reasonably conclude 
that my silence proceeded from particular unknown reasons. 
True, it did so, and to your never failing penetration I leave it 
to find them out. 

I saw Harry the other day as he pass'd thro' To^vn, and 
he made your apologies of fatigue, and indisposition. As 
you are not easily fatigued, I conclude that the bridal trap- 
pings have been very numerous. As you are fond of variety, 
perhaps you were sick at the thoughts of being engag'd in the 
same dull business some time hence, for a person rather nearer 
to you. Was that the case ? Don't droop at the thoughts of a 
repetition. If you will let me be an assistant Minister I will so 
exert my genius that you shall not quarrell with the aflfair for 
being without variations. Your desire to see me, my dear Polly, 
cannot exceed mine to see you, and sorry am I to tell you that 
I have no near prospect of seeing you at Poplar Neck. If you 
are serious in not wishing to make one of Sally Thompson^'s 

«9 « rj^i^Q bridal trappings may refer to the marriage of Henry Ward 
Pearce, Jr., the exact date of which, however, has not been learned. 

^* " Sally Thompson " has not been identified with certainty, although 
it is obvious that she is about to marry a former admirer of Polly Pearce. 



train, what can prevent your making me a visit. I shall next 
Week be ^ain quite alone and as the Bride will be so well 
attended you may oblige both me and yourself by making a 
friendly visit an excuse for your absence. I am sure nobody 
cou'd object to it and I don't see how you can avoid being at 
the Wedding (and of course being teazM with a great deal of 
not very delicate banter) any other way. You may depend 
on my being very good, if you will be candid. If you are not, 
why you must take the consequences. I think I have some 
talents for a Confidante, and I flatter myself that your think- 
ing so too, is one of the many reasons for which you want to 
see me. 0 that you were here at this moment what a charming 
tete a tete cou'd we have — ^but alas, wishing is of no avail. 

Tho' Nancy Pearce '^^ spent a day and a night with us, she 
was not able to give me any particulars of her jaunt to Cecil, 
so that Rumsey's '^^ brilliancy is quite new to me. 

The house was full all the time she was here. If I had wanted 
inducements to visit Poplar Neck such entertainments wou'd 
have been very powerful ones — ^but you forgot a still greater 
attraction, the ever agreeable Major Forman.^^ I am more 

She may have been a member of the distinguished Thompson family of 
Cecil and Queen Anne Counties. It seems less probable that she was the 
daughter of the Rev. William Thompson, the former Rector of North 
Sassafras (St. Stephen's) and Augustine parishes, Cecil Co., who had 
died the year before; Henry Ward Pearce, Sr. and Michael Earle both 
went on the bond of his widow Susanna Thompson, (See footnote 94.) 

Nancy Pearce" has not been idjeiitified with certainty, but was 
probably one of the numerous first covins of Polfy Pearce then living in 
Cecil Co. 

" Mr, Rumsey " cannot be identified with certainty but was unques- 
tionably a member of the well-known Cecil County family of that name, 
of which James Rumsey (c 1743-1792), the inventor of the steamboat, 
and Judge Benjamin Rumsey (1735-1808) of Baltimore County, were 
conspicuous members. 

"^^'^ Major Forman" is Major Thomas Marsh Forman (1758-1845) of 
Cecil and Queen Anne Counties, the son of Ezekiel Forman (1736-1795) 
and his wife Angus tina Thompson Marsh. Major Forman served with 
distinction in the Revolutionary war. He had a daughter Delia, born 
March 4, 1788 and died September 16, 1825, who married in 1805 the 



than commonly anxious to see him since his late modest and gen- 
erous declaration that he is to be bought and that the price 
of so precious a heart is only 20 thousand pounds. There's hu- 
mility and moderation for you. CouM nothing have purchased 
him, but merit equal to his own, then indeed might every 
Spinster have despair^, for even in this land flowing with 
Belles, his equal is not to be found. The moment that I draw 
the high prize in the Lottery I shall fly to Swan Harbour, and 
get my good friend My Earle to negociate with the sprightly 
Youth for me. I am almost afraid of him too, when I recollect 
that he has the Spectator at his fingers ends, and makes such 
apt Quotations from it, on every occasion, and subject, that I 
should be perfectly awed by his superior knowledge. I blame 
myself for telling you so much about him, as it now impossible 
that he can be any thing to you — ^besides a comparison between 
him, and your musical friend, wouM be no great advantage to 
the Latter. By the way, what is become of your Swain? He 
was expected here about this time but he has not made his 
appearance. I avow my impatience to see him because as things 
are, prudery herself could not attribute my curiosity to in- 
terested motives. 

I forgot whether I wrote you that there were regular As- 
semblies in Talbot all the Winter. The Miss I/loyds went 
constantly, but as my visit to Henny was entirely a nursing 
one I took no Ball Cloaths with me which I was sorry for, 
when I stayed so much longer than I expected. I know so few 
of the belles, and Beaux of my native County, that I shou'd 
lite to have seen an assemblage of their Beauty, finery and 
gallantry. Let it be recorded that the most striking figure there 
was Anna Groldsborough '^^ in a most fanciful and becoming 

Hon. Joseph Bryan. There is a record of his marriage, May 19, 1814, at 
Christiana, New Castle, Delaware, to Mrs. Martha Brown (Ogle) Callender. 

" The Miss Lloyds " were probably the four sisters, Anna, Elizabeth, 
Henrietta Maria and Deborah, the daughters of James Lloyd (1716-1768) 
of Parsons Landing, Talbot Co., and his wife Elizabeth Sewell (Md. Sist. 
Mag,, VIII, 86). 

'■"Anna Goldsborough " born 17f5, the daughter of Nicholas Golds- 


Figuar Hat, of Wilmington manufacture, I suppose. However 
she pass'd it off for the ton tho' I did not hear that any l)ody 
presumed to imitate it. 

Willy Goldsborough/^ her Husband and two sons came up a 
Week ago. The Dorset air seems to agree with her, better than 
with her spouse who has been confinM ever since he came. Her 
eldest Branch is most pitiably like the Dauphins family. The 
Turkey pointers are to be up in a few days, to spend 3 or 4 
Weeks at this place. I must pay them the usual attentions but 
mercy on my ears, and lungs. My dear speaking Trumpet I 
wish you were here to assist me. Poor Anny Smith "^"^ is every 
day expected at her Brother Ned's in Philad^ to lie in, in June. 
She does not mean to visit Maryland. Polly, Sukey and M^'^ 
{Samuel] Chew are going up to see her. T) dare say M'*® T. 
couM dispense with their company. When my father left 
Baltimore my Brother [Tench] '''^ was better, tho' still too far 

borough (1726-1777) of Talbot Co. She married Dec. 30, 1790, as his 
second wife John Singleton of Talbot Co. (See footnotes 29 and 160.) 

Willy Goldsborough " was Williamina Elizabeth (1762-1790), a 
daughter of the Rev. William Smith (1727-1803), at this time President 
of Washington College, Chestertown. She married. May 15, 1783, as his 
first wife, Charles Goldsborough (1761-1801) of Horn's Point, Dorches- 
ter Co. 

" Anny Smith " is doubtless Anna Maria Tilghman, a first cousin of 
the writer, and the daughter of Edward Tilghman (1713-1786) of Wye, 
Talbot Co., and his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Chief Justice 
Samuel Chew of Delaware* She married first, Charles Goldsborough, and 
second, the Rev. Robert Smith, (1732-1801), afterwards Bishop of South 
Carolina, who was for many years rector of St. Philip's at Charleston, but 
during the British occupation had left Charleston, and was rector of St. 
Paul's, Queen Anne Co., Md., between about 1780 and 1783. Her brother 
Edward Tilghman, Jr. (1751-1815), who was then living in Philadelphia, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Chief Justice Benjamin Chew of Penn- 
sylvania. " Polly and Sukey Tilghman " here referred to, were half sisters 
of "Anny Smith," being the children of Edward Tilghman by his third 
wife Juliana Carroll. ( See footnote 106 ) . 

^•"My brother" is Col. Tench Tilghman (1744-1786), whose illness is 
here referred to; he died in Baltimore a few days later, April 18, 1786. 
Of his distinguished Revolutionary career nothing need be said here. He 
married in 1783 his first cousin Anna Maria Tilghman (1755-1843), daugh- 
ter of the Hon. Matthew Tilghman (1718-1790) ; they had two children, 



fram being well. I can only say I am not so uneasy about 
him as I was. Tomorrow we shall hear from him. God 
grant the accounts may be favorable. Little Peggy '^^ was in- 
oculated two days before Papa came home. Adieu my dear 
Polly it will be time enough to finish when I hear of an oppor- 
tunity to Cecil. 

Tuesday Morning 

Johnny Relpe has promised to send this Letter to-morrow by 
a safe hand. Alas my dear Polly I am too unhappy about poor 
Tench to write you more than that we had Letters on Saturday, 
which informed us that he was no better but had rather lost 
strength. My God what his situation this moment [may] be. 
Indeed; indeed, I fear he is in great danger. 

My father went over this Morning, and alone, and a prey to 
every melancholy conjecture in your affectionate 

M. T. 

Miss Pearce 

Poplar Neck 


January 2^ 1787 
I am just on the Wing for farly [Fairlee] my dear Polly, 
but I will leave a few lines against your father comes. I can 
do no less after your quitting a romp, an amusement you are 
so fond of, to write to me. Sister Wancy, and Nancy Chew ®^ 
went to farly [Fairlee] on Thursday, and returned just now. 
They left Sister Betsy [Lloyd] and the Children tolerably well. 
This Christmas has afforded the gay ones of Chester Town 

(1) Margaret Tilghman, born 1784, who married a cousin, Tench Tilghman 
of Hope, Talbot Co., and (2) Elizabeth Tench Tilghman (1786-1852), who 
married in 1811 Nicholas Goldsborough of Oxford Neck. 

" Little Peggy " was, of course, Margaret, the daughter of Col. Tench 
Tilghman, referred to in the previous footnote. 
Johnny Relpe." (See footnote 10.) 
•1" Nancy Chew'' is Anna Maria (1749-1812), the daughter of Chief 
Justice Benjamin Chew of Philadelphia and his first wife Mary Galloway. 
She was a sister of Mrs. John Galloway, nee Sarah Chew, referred to in 
this mme letter. She did not Baarrj. {Bee imiiM^ 90.) 



rather more amusement than was expected from the dulness of 
the fall. There was a. Ball the night after Christmas, which 
was much indebted to the Major's of Queen Ann's. The 
formidable Clealand, the woeful looking Emory, and the 
handsome Major Smyth. M''^ Galloway flash' d upon 
them in her Muslin dress^ attended by her admiring Spouse 
in his Eock of Gibralter Coat. They had 16 Couple, and 
spent a very agreeable Evening. The play came next night, 
which afforded a few unexpected incidents. Some Bucks of 
true spirit, which was increased by good Lliuor, broke open one 
of the Windows, to the great dismay of the Ladies. As to the 
play, it exceeded no one's expectations. However the Eyes of 
the Audience were obliged by a vast display of fine deaths, and 
Jewels, which more than made up for any faults in the acting. 
Our Duke, really look'd very handsome, he wore Mat Tilgh- 
man's white Sattin waistcoat &c, a black star brilliant with 
paste, a pink sash and a small Hat ornamented with paste, and 
fourteen black, and white feathers. Last night it was again 
represented with the addition of the Irish Widow.^^ The Ball 
gave such a spring to the Spirit of our Beaux that they have 
made up a Subscription for Assemblies, and the first, is to be 
to-morrow night. It is really provoking my dear Polly, that 
after staying so long here, you shou'd go away just before the 
commencement of all this gaiety. However if you will but 
return, and partake of the remainder, I promise to assist you 
in decorating yourself to the utmost of my power. 

8fl (( Majors of Queen Anne." The three ]Majors cannot all be identi- 
fied with certainty. There was a Major James Clayland of Queen Anne 
Co. (see also footnote 103)^ but as there were at least three members 
of the Emory family who were Revolutionary officers, identification of 
" Major Emory " is difficult. There can be little question, however, that 
" the handsome Major " was Thomas Smyth. 

®* " Mrs. Galloway " was Sarah Chew, daughter of Chief Justice Benja- 
min Chew of Philadelphia, who had married in Philadelphia, Oct. 23, 1786, 
John Galloway (d. May' 16, 1810) of Tulip Hill, Anne Arundel Co. (See 
footnote 108.) 

•* The play " The Irish Widow " was a comedy written by David Garrick 
1747, and first performed by him. 


Mrs. Bordley came home a few days ago, after spending a 
fortnight at the Island with her papa, who has behav'd most 
graciously. The changes of this World, how rapid. He has 
given John a tract of Land near farly [Fairlee], Stock and 
all. Now how will their note be changed. Beale's praises 
will soon be sounded abroad, as ever his faults were. Poor 
Polly Wright ®^ has been at the point of Death but she is now 
recovering. One of those terrible lying in fevers. Her Child 
is a Son. I heard that she sent for M.^^ Sewell in illness. 
I was delighted to hear of [Michael] Earle's being much 
better. Heaven grant that she may continue so. The 
request is so long an affair that I must defer doing it, till my 
as I shall be forc'd to copy it myself. I suppose it is 
for your fair intended Sister. My Love to your Mamma, 
Nancy and Peggy. I wish the former wou'd take a ride down, 
I am sure it wou'd be of Service to her. If she is averse to 
Company we will go to farly [Fairlee] with .... Billy 
will be there the last of this Week. I must not forget to tell 
you that poor Ferguson's fears were realized. In spite of 
all his 'animating lessons, Arnold *® was as cold as a Cucumber. 

"•^"Mrs. Bordley." In footnote 60, reference lias been made to John 
Beale Bardley, Jr. (1764-1815), thei son of the distinguished John Beale 
Bordley, Sr. (1727-1804), jurist and author, and his first wife Margaret 
Chew. From this letter it would appear that he had very recently been 
married, but as to the identity of his wife we are left in doubt, although 
we are told that her father lived on the " Island," which probably refers 
to Wye Island, Queen Anne Co., or posftibly to Kent Island. (See also foot- 
notes 60, 132 and 185.) 

•« " Polly Wright " was Mrs, Samuel Turbutt Wright of Queen Anne Co. 
She was Mary Sewell, daughter of Clement Sewell and his wife Rachel 
DeCourcy of Queen Anne Co. Her husband, Maj. Samuel Turbutt Wright 
(1748-1810), married twice; his second wife was his cousin Anne Wright. 

Billy" is the writer's brother WiUiam Tilghman (1766-1827). 
(See footnote 42.) 

""Ferguson'* is probably the Rev. Colin Ferguson (1750-1806), then 
rector of St. Paul's parish, near Chestertown, and fr©m 1789 to 1805 
president of Washington College. He is said to have been the first 
Episcopal clergyman ordained in the United States. 

•* " Arnold " is unque^tioinably Beneiict Arnold. He had married, April 


So says IsT. 0. [Hianey Ohew].®^ We heard by tlie last post 
that Brother Jimmy was recovering fast, farewell 

M. T. 


Chester Town, February 18, 1787 
If I do give you the slip my .dear Polly you may be aesur^d 
that necessity^ and not choice wiU prevent my seeing you af 
Poplar Neck. If I am oblig'd to give up my visit, I shall be as 
much mortified as you can possibly be, but indeed I was never 
lese at my own command than I have been since you left me. 
Thd' Sister Betsy [Lloyd] has never been confinM, she has 
never been quite well, and of course was anxious to have one 
of us constantly with her. I went to f arly [Fairlee] two days 
after Billy came from Philad* intending to stay a few days — 
which my sister's entreaties, lengthen^ to three Weeks. Prom 
yesterday Week till the tuesday following, I was engag'd in 
one of the most melancholy offices of friendship attending the 
last illness of a friend. Poor Lloyd ®^ was suddenly taken 
with a violent Quincey, of .which she died in four days. As 
she did not like strangers about her, I was a great deal with 
her night and day, and immediately after her death, I went to 
farly [Fairlee] to bring up Sister Nancy, who had been very 
sick for several days, and was distracted to get home, lest she 
shouM have a severe illness. Happily however her fears were 
stronger than her disorder. On friday we came up, and she is 
now pretty well. This tedious account of my engagements 
will account for my not having writtm lately and that is the 

8, 1779, a first cousin of the writer, Margaret, the daughter of Chief Justice 
Edward Shipp^ of Pennsylvania and his wife Margaret Francis. 

*««]Sr. is « Nancy'* or Anna Maria Chew (1749-1812), the daughter 
of Chief Justice Benjamin Chew of Philadelphia. {See footnote 81.) 

" Poor Mrs. Lloyd " is doubtless the wife of Col. Richard Lloyd of 
Kent Co., n^e Anne Crouch. She was the mother of Major J&mm Lloyd 
of Farley, the brother-in-law of the writer. 


sole reason of my troubling you with it and to convince yon 
that I have not changed my opinion of punctuality's being the 
life of a correspondence, of which yon so saucily remind me. 
A long winded period this and some what lamely expressed 
but a hint is enough to a Lady of your quick imagination. 

I had a Letter from Henny last Week, by which I had the 
pleasure of hearing that she was quite well, and had as yet 
kept clear of those disagreeable feelings, and swell'd Limbs 
which tormented her last Winter. My going to Talbot next 
month is not determined on. Her next Letter will settle the 
matter. If die seems very anxious to have me with her, I 
shall certainly go. If not, I shall defer my visit till May as 
she will have an excellent nurse and the family will be ex- 
tremely large at that time. 

I thank you for your intended favor of introducing me to 
so accomplished a Beau as D^^ Hall but at this time I was 
much more gratified in receiving your Letter from the hands 
of [Michael] Earle, for besides my being very glad to see him, 
his coming down was a convincing proof that M^^ Earle was 
better. She has so often recovered from severe illnesses that 
I am not so much alarm' d about her, as I shou'd be about any 
body else in her situation. I trust that good Weather with 
constant, and gentle exercise will once more restore her for 
indeed death wou'd be an irrep^able loss to M'^ Eqrle and poor 

You can^t think how pleas'd I was at hearing of the agreeable 
change in "K^^ ThOTapson'^s circumstances. In my life, I was 

®^ Mrs. Lloyd Tilghman's second daughter, Henrietta Maria, was born 
about two months later — ^March 30, 1787. She afterwards married Alex- 
ander Hemsley of the Cloverfields family. 

" Dr. Hall " cannot be identified with certainty, but may well be Dr. 
Elisha John Hall (1764-1835), a member of the Hall family of Mt. 
Welcome, Cecil Co., who married Catherine Smyth. 

" Mrs. Thompson " is probably Mrs. Susanna Thompson, the widow 
of the Rev. William Thompson (1735-1785) rector of St. Stephen's, Cecil 
Co., who had died in 1785. She was Susanna (b. Jan. 17, 1738), the 
daughter of the Bev. George Boss, and had married Oct. 28, 1762. (See 
footnote 70.) 


never so much interested about a stranger as I have been about 
her and I hope her Pot luck will always be as good as it is at 
present. It is pity that those who are inclined to make the best 
of their situation shou'd ever be in a distressing one. 

It was unlucky for me that Billy [Tilghman] called at 
Poplar ISfeck as he return'd from Philad* The news of 
that place wou'd have afforded ample subjects for a long 
Letter, and such opportunities of exercising my pen occur 
so seldom that I regret exceedingly his having anticipated me. 
But perhaps tis better as it is, for I shoaM probably have run 
into a most cruel length in describing the sentimental parties, 
the brilliant Circles, and the social petit soupers that engag'd 
his Evenings, without even mentioning the morning visits, 
Dinners &c which completely filled up his Days. On one sub- 
ject, I fancy he did not say much to you, for he has not to me. 
All my questions have been in vain to discover the state of 
his Heart, tho' he has given me a general history of the various 
dangers it has encountei^'d. Miss Ann Hamilton's Madona 
softness, Sophia Francis's bewitching sprightliness, Nancy 
Allen's all powerful smile, and Peggy Chew's ^® Je ne scai 
quoi. From which of these he has suffer^'d most, he will de- 
termine on reflexion, for in Philadelphia he had not time to 
settle the point. One piece of intelligence respecting My^ 
Byngham's elegance,^^ I may venture to give you as news, 

•5 "Miss Ann Hamilton" (1769-1798) was a celebrated Philadel^ia 
beauty. She was the second daughter of Andrew Hamilton, 3d, of Wood- 
lands near Philadelphia. She married in 1792 James Lyle. 

Sophia Francis," the daughter of the writer's uncle Tench Francis, 
Jr. of Philadelphia, and his wife Anne Willing. She afterwards ^rried 
George Harrison. 

«'"Xancy Allen" is Anne Penn Allen (1767-1851), the daughter of 
James Allen of Philadelphia and his wife Elizabeth Lawrence. She married 
in 1800 James Greenleaf. 

08 « Peggy Chew " is Margaret Oswald Chew (1760-1824) who later mar- 
ried Gen. John Eager Howard. (See footnote 63.) 

09 it jjTjg Byngham '' is Mrs. William Bingham, n^e Anne Willing, the 
daughter of Thomas Willing. Her husband was a man of great wealth 
and prominence. She was a celebrated Pliiladelphia beauty. She and her 



because it was out of Billy's way to mention it. Aunt Law- 
rence is my informant. After speaking in high terms of 
B's beauty, she says that a few nights before she had blaz'd 
upon a large party at IP [liobert] Morris's in a dress which 
eclips'd any that has yet been seen. A Hobe a la Turke of 
black Velvet, Rich White sattin Petticoat, body and sleeves, 
the whole trim^d with Ermine. A large Bouquet of aatural 
flowers supported by a knot of Diamonds, Large Buckles, 
Necklace and Earrings of Diamonds, Her Head ornamented 
with Diamond Sprigs interspersed with artificial flowers, above 
all, wav'd a towering plume of snow white feathers. Can you 
imagine a dress more strikingly beautiful. How happy is it 
for the World in general, my dear Polly, that splendor is not 
necessary to real happiness, if it was, what wou^d become of 
such little people as you and I? 

The news of this Town is very trifling just now» The flirta- 
tions of the day are John Chew in his glowing Velvet 
and Miss Van Dike,^*^^ and Major Clealand (see also footnote 
82) and Anny Sudler.^*** Tte last Hero, after a very close siege 

hHBband had recently returned from abroad where they had received 
/ unusual attention. 

^"^^Aunt Lawrence" is Mrs. John Lawrence, n^e Elizabeth Francis 
(1733-1800) of Philadelphia, a sister of the writer's mother. 

loiffjj^j.^ John Chew," later sometimes referred to as Jack Chew, is 
doubtless John (1740-1807), the son of Chief Justice Samuel Chew (1693- 
1744) of Delaware, and his second wife Mary (Paca) Galloway. He lived 
in Chestertown and apparently never married. 

los « j^gg Yg^j^ Dike " is Sarah Van Dyke, daughter of Mrs. Mary Van 
Dyke (d. 1798), n^e Graves, the widow of Dr. Thomas Van Dyke (d. 1787), 
a prominent physician of Kent Co. Sarah Van Dyke married a year or 
two after this Dr. Andrew Wiesenthal of Baltimore. She had a younger 
sister Mary Elizabeth Henrietta Van Dyke. (See alao footnote 46.) 
"Major Clealand" has not been identified. 

io»"Anny Sudler" is Anna, the daughter of Emory Sudler (b. 1725) 
of Kent Co. and his wife Martha Smyth (d. 1799). Martha Smyth was 
the daughter of Thomas Smyth of Trumpington, Kent Co. and his second 
wife Mary Frisby. Anna Sudler was probably a first cousin of "Miss 
Garnett" so often referred to in these letters, who is to be identified as 
Anna, the daughter of Mary (Smyth) Garnett, another daughter of Thomas 


of a fortniglit, has been defeated, (Those fighting yankies have 
fiU'd my Head with military terms). The elder Damon's fate 
is not yet prononncf'd. If yon ask my opinion I can only tell 
you that the report is strong that he visits very often at the 
House and (what is still more suspicious) he blushes and looks 
silly when her naane is mentioned and further this deponent 
sayeth not. 

]y[rs Forman came here a few days ago, to know whether 
Aunt Pearce intended to take her Daughter, she wishes to 
know immediately because she has the offer of another good 
place for her, M^^ Thomas's, she says Henny is very desirous 
of living with you. I promis'd to inform you of what she 
said, and your Mama will act accordingly, I am happy to hear 
she is coming down soon and if I might advise, she will take 
advantage of this fine Weather. Dick Tilghman sold all 
his patty pans, long ago but he says Kennard at Duck Creek 
has plenty of the same sort, at the same price. Tell Nancy 
[Pearce ?] that within the last fortnight Letters have come to 
hand from Anny Smith,^^^ and Dick Tilghman. They were 
both quite well. Dick will be in, in March and for the pres- 
ent, he has sent in a young Bear, which he has recommended 
to the particular notice and friendship of his friend Tom 
Buchanan. Bruin is now at Eock Hall but he is shortly to be 
sent for. 

I shall say nothing of the business that brought M^ [Michael] 
Earle down as he will tdl you all about it. I think affairs are 
now in a better train than they, been for long time, and poor 

Smytli of Tnimpington. (See footnote 140.) It lias not been learned 
whom Anna Sudler married. 

"*"3Mrs. Forman" and her daughter "Henny" are doubtlesfi mrabers 
of the Queen Anne and Cecil Go. family of this name, but cannot be 
definitely placed. 

106 « Dick Tilghman " is difficult to distinguish among several of this 
name, but is probably Kichard Tilghman (1740-1809) of Grosses, Talbot 
Co., the son of William Tilghman of Grosses, and a first cousin of the 
writer. He had married in 1784 Mary Gibson. 

^**"Anny Smith*' is the wife of Rev. Robert Smith. (See footnote 



Cousin Polly [Ringgold] is quite tappy in keeping Tom^^*^ 
witli her. M^® G[alloway] poor thing is but peaking tho' as 
she is not thought to be in danger she is not much pitied. I 
suppose you understand me, but if you don't it is no great 
matter, as it is one of those secrets that time will certainly 
bring to light. The same report prevails as to Madame 
Pearce.^^^ If it is true, all your mortal fears are over and 
hers (I suppose) are beginning. Give my love to her, and tell 
her I beg she will come thro^ Chester Town that I may see her 
improvements. It is a folly for her to be asham'd of her slirw 
nessj nobody is aaham'd now. 

Monday Morning 
The post has this moment brought me a Letter from Henny, 
which has determined me not to go to Talbot before May. She 
still keeps quite well. I may now reasonably expect to see my 
friends in Cecil before long. When Aunt P[earce] comes 
down I will settle the time, manner &c Do you know the 
amiable Miss Debby Perry ^^^? She is soon to be married to 
a M^ Dickinson. Henny says, Betsy and Henny Lloyd are 
in high preparation for the occasion. They are to exhibit as 
brides Maids. I beg you will not let your Wilmington Beaux 
visit you before I go up. The agreeable Beimett,^^^ I have a 
great desire to see because he is so fond of your family. You 
may depend on seeing all my Books with me. 

107 « Torn'' is Thomas mnggold (d. 1818), the son of Mrs. Mary 
(Galloway) Ringgold, or "Aunt Polly'' as she is called, the widow of 
Thomas Ringgold (1744-1776). 

io8<*;^rs. G." is Mrs. John Galloway, ii4e Sarah Chew. (See footnote* 
83 and 120.) 

109 " Madam Pearce 'Ms Mrs, Henry Ward Pearce, Jr., nee Anna Maria 
Tilghman, recently married, and so constantly referred to in these letters. 

iio«]y|igg Debby Perry" and "Mr. mekimcm." These are both well 
known Eastern Shore names. 

"1" Betsy and Henny Lloyd" are the daughters of James Lloyd (1716- 
1768) of Parsons Landing, Talbot Co., referred to in footnote 74. 

lis it r^YiQ agreeable Bcnnet " is doubtless Bennett Chew, son of Samuel 
Chew (d. 1737) of Maryland and his wife Henrietta Maria Lloyd. Bennett 
Chew married Ann Maria, daughter of the writer's uncle Edward Tilghman. 


Cecil is growing monstrously gay, notliing but Batchelors 
parties to be beard of. Wbat a pity that Major [Thomas 
Marsh] Ponnan had so few witnesses of his superior manner 
of doing the honours of his House. I wish you had gone, 

M. T. 

{To he coidimt,ed.) 


A Plan or EECOMMEiroATioif of Ori-iCEES — ^List of 

Edited by Habry Fkaintklin Covington. 


In submitting a copy of the report of the Committee of Recom- 
mendations for officering the Militia of Worcester County in 
1T94, 1 may say that I have filed the document with the Society 
for permanent keeping. It consists of a half-dozen sheets of 
foolscap — 12 pages — ^neatly written and sewed together and 
bears the name of William Whittington, as Clerk of the Com- 
mittee. Judge William Whittington was grandfather of the 
late United States Senator John Walter Smith of Snow Hill. 
The document apparently came from the latter's private papers. 

The document is noteworthy, I think, for its method and 
plan of adjusting the new militia system after the Revolution, 
to dear and long cherished principles of government. Finding, 
a circumstance for which the law did not specifically provide, 
the sons of Worcester proceeded to meet it in their own way 
and in the spirit of the law and the democracy under which 
they lived. Their attitude assumes that whether the issue at 
stake be great or small every man has the right to be heard, 
is entitled to his day in court. Thus it sounds a note typical 



of Maryland history, whicli is the history of a strong aad in- 
dependent people in whom the love of liberty was no less a 
business than a passion. We see the same characteristics domi- 
nant today among their descendants in such things as their 
opposition to Federal centralization and bureauracy. Indeed, 
this document may carry us back in spirit to the days of the 
Barons of King John. 

Dissatisfaction had arisen in the county, it seems, over* the 
" T^iode of procedure followed by a small Committee of Kecom- 
mendation composed of 24 gmtlemen in recommending officers 
for the new militia. This led to the calling of a general public 
meeting at Snow Hill and the adoption of new methods and 
further recommendations. According to the letter to the Gov- 
ernor and Council, their proceedings were designed not only 
to correct abuses and allay popular resentment, but as being 
best calculated for the " selection of such men as unite a ca- 
pacity to discharge the duties of their respective offices and 
the attachment of the people over whom they are to command." 
No quartering of soldiers on the public. They desired instead 
an efficient militia for the protection of a free and contented 

The plan itself is unique, in that it employs a represcaatative 
method of recommending militia officers rather than the direct 
method. Throughout the colonies generally, the recent custom 
had been the direct method whereby each member of a company 
had an opportunity of voting his choice of officers directly from 
among the members of his company. In the early days of the 
Maryland colony, however, the Governor commissioned " Colo- 
nels, Majors, and Captains," and empowered them to serve as 
recruiting officers (Militia Laws in Archives of Maryland, Vol. 
13 & 16). No special mode was prescribed for choosing minor 
officers, who were presumably picked by the Captain or by the 
members of the Company with his consent In 1775, however, 
it was ordered " that, if a sufficient number of men enroll, to 
make up a company or artillery, they may choose their own 
officers." (Archives of Maryland, Vol. XI, p. 28). 


The new representative plan called for all male white persons 
of each hundred or district; after due public notice given, to 
meet on the first Saturday of May at some convenient place in 
each hundred and choose two Committeemen from each com- 
pany. These Committeemen were to serve as representatives 
and convene at Snow Hill on the Tuesday following, and recom^ 
mend to the Governor and Council " fit and proper persons " 
to fill the different offices under the late Militia Law, (See 
Chapter 63, Acts of 'Nov. Session, 1793). 

It may be noted that this is not the procedure to which 
Congressman John Witherspoon objected in 1777.* He pro- 
tested successfully against the election of Major-Generals by a 
vote of the general officers, and believed that the power should 
be appointive. The Worcester plan was merely a plan of recom- 
mendation to the Governor by vote of representatives from the 
companies chosen by the people. The Maryland statute makes 
no mention of any citizens Committee of Recommendation, 
but provides that the Governor shall appoint the officers of 
militia. Further, it makes no provision for giving salaries to 
officers but names certain articles of equipment which each 
officer shall furnish for himself. It does provide, however, for 
the payment of a per diem to those engaged in making up lists 
of men eligible in the counties. The Governor could appoint 
whom he chose, except for certain exemptions, but naturally 
he would be expected to give attention to the advice of such a 
representative body as endorsed the Worcester County recom- 

The Whittington document, as given here in full, makes 
plain that the plan was carried out in detail, and finally states 
that the officers recommended were "Commissioned the 24th 
of June 1794." It will appear, moreover, that a majority of 
the first Committee endorsed the recommendations of the later 
Committee in preference to the earlier, and forwarded a letter 
to this effect to the Governor and Council. 

• President John Witherspoon by Varnum Lansing CoUins, Vol. 11, p. 64. 



Such was the Worcester County experiment in solving the 
perpetual problem of reconciling democracy and army life. It 
will be interesting to follow it through^ as later volumes of the 
Archives appear and render the records available. Whatever 
its success, however, it would seem that the liberties of the 
people in times of peace should be paramount to the necessities 
of the people in tiones of war. Undoubtedly, too, the men who 
were engaged in and led this undertaking were men of high 
purpose and of no small ability. 

In conclusion, I believe that the representative plan adopted 
in 1794 by Worcester County for recommending Militia OflS- 
cers had a two fold purpose: It was designed (1) to make sure 
that military control of the county (which had so long existed, 
probably since 1775), should not continue in time of peace: 
and (2), to assert the rights guaranteed to the people by the 
first Ten Amendments to the Constitution kno%vn as the Bill of 
Rights declared adopted in 1791. Special reference seems to 
be made to Amendment II confirming the right of the people 
to bear arms and to Amendment III preventing the quartering 
of soldiers in time of peace. 

A letter of inquiry to the Army War College as to the 
modes of recommendation used by the Colonists has brought 
the information from C. A. Bach, Lieutenant-Colonel, Cavalry, 
Chief Historical Section, that " no specific use of this — ^the 
Worcester Plan — has been found,^^ and also that ^^the proce- 
dure followed in making recommendations to the Governor 
is not known. 

The document is interesting also for its mention of the Hun- 
dreds and of numerous names of persons. It assigns the Com- 
pany officers to each of nine Hundreds, showing the section of 
the county each ofiicer resided in at the tmie. The larger or more 
populous Hundreds would seem to be — ^Mattaponi, Queponco, 
Buckingham, and Wicomico. At least, they each furnished 
officers for three companies while the others supplied ofiicers 
for no more than two. A number of the men listed had seen 
service with the Continental Army during the Eevolution. I 


am marking with a star * such names as are mentioned in Vol. 
XVIII of the Archives of Maryland, which gives the " Records 
of Maryland Troops in the Continental Service during the War 
of the American Revolution, 1776-83/' It will thus appear (1) 
that of the 46 men the people elected to serve on the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, about one third had fought in the 
Revolution; that (2) of the eight -men the Oommittee recom- 
mended for high commissions, the three men chosen for the 
highest had had revolutionary experience as officers — Colonel 
John Gunby, Lieutenant-Colonel Levin Winder, and Captain 
Levin Handy; and (3) that in many of the companies formed, 
they have also recommended as an officer the name of a soldier 
of Revolutionary experience. In some cases, however, we find 
the family but not the first name. For instance, Moses Chaille, 
1st lieutenant of the third Maryland Independent Company, 
August 20, 1776 does not appear in the document, but we find 
instead the name of Peter Chaille who served as Chairman of 
the Snow Hill meeting, and William Chaille who was elected 
as a Committeeman from Wicomico Hundred. Again, Solo- 
mon Long, 2nd lieutenant of the third Maryland Independent 
Company above, is here represented by Levin Long who was 
chosen as Ensign of the company from Snow Hill Hundred. 
The Purnell family too is well represented here and in the 
Revolutionary records, but the first names are not often du- 
plicated. Such names, of course, are not here starred. The 
document follows : 

The figures placed after the few naanes in italics refer to 


The Document. 
Worcester County Snow Hill May 7th 1794 


Worcester County forming so inconsiderable a portion of the 
State of Maryland, it is no inconsiderable cause of regret that 
our part of the Country should so often tr^pass upon your 



deliberations and so often excite your attention to the same 
Object. But as you are a Body selected by the immediate 
Eepresentatives of the people, We flatter ourselves that nothing 
conducive to the security & prosperity of your Country will 
be unattended to by you. The subject upon which We address 
you is the important one of Officering the Militia, upon the 
respectable establishment of which [it is a maxim with Ameri- 
cans] especially depends the Security of the Civil and political 
Eights of freemen. Some time since you were presented with 
a Letter recommendatory of the Officers of this place drawn 
up and subscribed by twenty four Gentlemen who we believe 
Actuated by patriotic principles & considering the I^'ecessity 
of an immediate attention to the filling up of the different 
Offices prescribed by the late Militia Law, without previous 
notice to the people formed themselves into a Committee for 
the purpose before mentioned and immediately transmitted 
their recommendations to you. ^Vhen the people discovered 
the mode in which this Business had been conducted and that 
on account of the immediate transmission of their Recom- 
mendations to your Body, they had not an equal opportunity 
of Eecommending their Officers; Almost a universal dissatis- 
faction pervaded the County and not only men of inferior rank 
and of irascible and impetuous Tempers but those of the Most 
intelligent kind & tranquil Dispositions considered the mode 
of procedure as unfair and not only a deprivation of their 
Rights of a participation in the Recommendation, but badly 
calculated to promote the object of the Committee — ^to wit — 
the selection of proper Officers for the Militia. — ^TJpon seeing 
the minds of the people thus inflamed & having upon delibera- 
tion conceived what they considered a more eligible mode of 
procedure, a number of the Committee on the next day of 
public meeting at Snow Hill subsequent to a publication of 
their proceedings requested the people who were collected from 
various parts of the County would attend in the Court House 
w[h]ere the Resolves herein contained were proposed to them 
and acceeded to. — The substance of which was that each hun- 



dred should hold an election and delegate from each Company 
two Eepresentatives to meet in one general Committee at Snow 
Hill — To this System all seemed w^illing to confide their pre- 
tentions to offices & by this all conceived the Inconveniency & 
impropriety of treating would be prevented; and that by this 
plan such men would be selected as are best calculated to fill 
the various Offices designated by the Act for the Organization 
and dicipline of the militia. — In persuance to these Eesolves 
& by a deputation from the people we convened at Snow Hill 
on tie 6th of May for the purpose before mentioned & do 
hereby recommend the persons as officers for the different 
Banks to which their names are respectively affixed in the 
transcript of the proceedings hereto annexed. — ^It may be 
proper here to mention that a number of the former com- 
mittee are members of this Body & as by a letter accompanying 
this you will perceive they consider the present as the Most 
eligible plan that could be adopted as being best calculated for 
the selection of such men as unite a Capacity to discharge the 
Duties of their respective offices and the attachment of the 
people over whom they are to command — It may be proper 
also to mention that our proceedings were public & that every 
man had an equal right to recommend his friends & as it is 
reasonable to suppose from the manner of our appointment — 
that the strictest impartiality was exhibited to the public and 
that the governing principle was the public good. 

We are Gentlemen 

Tour Most Ob* Serves 

Levin Handy Benj» Pumell 

Samuel Handy J ohn Gunhy ^ 
Thomas Dixon Chaille 

William Corbin W^^ Toadvine 

^General John Gunby (1745-1807) enlisted early and was promoted 
quickly. On January 2, 1776, he was elected by the Convention, Captain 
of the 2nd Independent Maryland Company; was commissioned Colonel 
of the 2nd Regiment, April 17, 1777; was Colonel of the 1st Regiment, 



William Beavans Henry Franklin ^ 

Ja* Bacon Zadok Pumell 

Parker John Postly 

Barkly Townsend Esau Williams 

Jolinson Dennis Elisha Purnell 

Ja^ Houston WilV^ Morris^ 
Benj^ Dennis Underliill 

June 1, 1783; and was again Colonel of the 2nd Raiment on June 5, 
1789. (Archives of Maryland, Vol. 18.) An account and estimate of 
his distinguished career may be found in a volume published in 1902 
by A. A, Gunby of the Louisiana Bar entitled " Colonel John Gunby of 
the Maryland Line." He was buried on his farm near Snow Hill, which 
was purchased in 1817 from his son George, by Captain James Dennis, 
son of Benjamin, and has since belonged to the latter's descendants, the 
farm now being owned by Mrs. George W. Covington. , 

^Henry Franklin (1744-1816) was son of William Franklin (died 1777) 
and Sarah, only daughter of Henry Alexander; grandson of Ebenczer 
Franklin (died 1728) and Bridget, granddaughter of Major-General Ed- 
ward Whaley — the regicide ; and great-grandson of " Commissioner " John 
Franklin (died 1727). He married in 1766 Eleanor Massey. Among his 
descendants are Judge John R. Franklin (1820-1878) a graduate of 
Jefferson College in 1836; 1843 member of the House of Delegates, 1849 
Speaker of the House; 1853 Representative 33rd Congress, and 1865 
Judge of the Circuit Court; State Senator Littleton P. Franklin (1831- 
1888); Dr. George Anson Franklin; George W. Covington, a member of 
the Constitutional Convention of 1867, a Representative in the 47th 
and 48th Congress; Lady Martha Ellen Kortright, Colonel Harry Purnell 
of the U. S. Army. 

• Colonel William Morris was both a civil and militia officer during the 

(1) June 4, 1777 — Appointed Justice of the Orphans Court, (p. 274), 

(2) July 11, 1777— Appointed Register of Wills (p. 317). 

(3) Aug. 30, 1777 — Commissioned Major of the Snow Hill Battalion 

in Worcester County (p. 350). 

(4) Dec. 22, 1777 — Commissioned by the General Assembly Register 

of Wills for Worcester County (p. 444). 

(5) March 23, 1778 — Commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the S3mne- 

puxent Battalion of Militia in Worcester 
County (p. 547). 

The references are to Vol. 16 of the Archives of Maryland. A letter 
of inquiry to the Clerk of the Court at Snow Hill brings the following: 
"William Morris seems to have probated his first will in December 1777, 
and his last on October 19, 1780," and also, that his brother Jamee Round 


Isaac Marshall 
/ ohn Bishop ^ 
Thos Purnell sen^ 
Jonatlla^ Parsons 
Sam^ Davis 
Jonathan Cathell 
David Wilson 

Boaz Walston 
John Holland 
Sam^ Harper 
ITehemiah Holland 

John Dennis, of LitP 
John Bnchannan 
'Jas Selhy 
John Marshall 

John Johnson 
William Holland 
Hob* M. Richardson 

Ahisha Davis 
James Laws 
Joseph Gray 
George Bell 

Morris "was Clerk of the Court from 1777 to 1795." It is a matter of 
tradition that during the darkest hours of the Revolution, the county 
records were transferred for safety to the Morris home in Queponco. 

* Captain John Bishop (1754-1820) a brother of Charles Bishop, (who 
died in 1805) was son of William Bishop (who died in 1807) and grand- 
son of William Bishop (who died in 1757) and Ann Martin, daughter of 
Thomas Sr. — lineal descendants of Henry Bishop of " Durham House " 
and " Snow Hill/' Captain John Bishop left daughter Zipporah (horn 
1799) who in 1821 married John Potts Duffield, youngest son of Benjamin 
and Rebecca (Potts) Duffield. Among their descendants was Charles P. 
Duffield, and Anna Duffield who married Judge John Rankin Franklin. 

''John Dennis (of Littleton). John Dennis (1771-1806) son of Littleton 
Dennis (1728-1774) and Susanna Upshur ( daughter of Abel Upshur), who 
built Beverly house, was 10 years in Congress first in the 5th Congress, 
was one of the five Federalists who changed from Burr to Jefferson, thus 
breaking the deadlock. Identified with *'Beckford" near Princess Anne. 
Married Elinor Wilson Jockson. Great grandfather of Rosalie Cook. 
Littleton Dennis (1765-1833) brother of John above, married Elizabeth 
Upshur, died at "Essex*' Farm — Lawyer and Judge of Appeals 1801- 
1806. Littleton and Elizabeth left among other children (I) John Upshur 
Dennis and (II) Littleton Upshur Dennis. 

(I) John Upshur Dennis (1793-1851) died at Beverly. Married (1) 
Elizabeth Dashiell; (2) Maria Robertson; (3) Louisa J. Holland. John 
Upshur and Maria left (a) James U. Dennis, lawyer of Princess Anne, 
father of James Teackle Dennis; (b) Dr. George Dennis of Kangston, 
U. S. Senator, father of Judge Upshur Dennis and James U. Dennis. 
John Upshur and Louisa Jane left, Samuel K. Dennis, father of Arthur, 
Alfred Pearce (Vice Chairman of Federal Tariff Commission) Samuel K. 
(lawyer and former U. S. District Attorney) Philip and (II) Littleton 
Upshur Dennis (1804-1833) lived and died at Essex, married Sarah Anne 



Snow Hill May 7*^ 1794. I do hereby certify tliat the fore- 
going is a true transcript of the original address to the Gov- 
ernor & Council from a Committee of Eecommendation, & 
which was deposited in my custody as Clerk. 

W"' Whittington. 

Kesolutions which were adopted by a Meeting of the people 
^at Snow Hill on the 18*^ of April 1794 for the purpose of 
carrying into execution a plan for recommending to the Gov- 
ernor and Council fit and proper -Characters to fill the (Afferent 
Offices under the late Militia Law. — 

Whereas the appointment of proper Characters to fill the 
different Offices under the late Militia Law is the most effectual 
means of obtaining an efficient and well regulated Militia which 
is the only sure defense of the Eights and privileges of the 
people of every Country and Whereas also it is propir and 
expedient that the Governor & Council should be informed 
what persons are the most proper to be selected for this pur- 
pose — ^Therefore resolved — 

1st That the people of this meeting recommend and they 
do hereby request, as being the most eligible means of pro- 
curing fit and proper persons to be appointed Officers under 
the late Militia law — ^that all male white persons of each hun- 
dred in the County above Eighteen years of age do meet on 
the first Saturday in May next at some convenient place in 
each hundred hereafter to be appointed; and then and there 
elect and chuse two Committee men from each Company for 
the purpose of convening at Snowhill & recommending to the 

Waters Robertson (died 1832) Littleton and Sarah left son George R. 
Dennis raised at Beverly by his uncle and guardian John U. Dennis — 
moved to Frederick, married successively two McPherson sisters, descend- 
ants of Thomas Johnson, first Governor of Maryland. George R. Dennis 
is the father of John M. Dennis, present State Treasurer, and one daughter, 
Elizabeth, who married (1) her first cousin, Littleton Deimis son of John 
U. Dennis, (2) Murray Rush of Philadelphia, whose daughter Elizabeth. 
Murray Rush married John Biddle Porter of Philadelphia. 


GoYernor & Council fit and proper persons to fill tie different 

Offices under the late Militia Law. 

2^ Kesolved — That the Committee men chosen and elected 
as afs^ are requested to meet at Snow Hill on the Tuesday after 
the First Saturday in May next and then and there recommend 
to the Governor & Council such Characters as they -conceive 
are best qualified to become oQicers of the Militia. — 

3*^ Resolved — That the Committee afs^ when convened are 
solicited to request the members of a Committee who set a few 
days ago in Snow Hill to furnish them with a transcript of 
their proceedings and the names of the different persons recom- 
mended as officers and if any of them should be approved of 
by this Committee it shall be so notified to the Governor & 

4*^ Eesolved that Col. Peter Chaille Mr. John Dennis M^ 
William Handy and M^ Henry Parker be and they are hereby 
appointed a Committee of Information for the purpose of noti- 
fying to the people of each Hundred that an Election will be 
held on the day afs*^ at such places as they shall appoint in 
order to select men to form a Committee for the purposes afs*^. 

5*^ That this last mentioned Committee are requested to 
appoint places for the holding the said Elections and to notify 
the people thereof and also to appoint a judge and Clerk of 
the s^ Elections whose duty it shall be to make true returns 
of the polls kept at the said Elections to the Committee of 
recommendation when convened at Snow Hill and who shall 
be judges of their own Elections. — 

6*^ Kesolved That this meeting recommend it as expedient 
that the former Committee be requested to inform the Gov- 
ernor & Council to suspend any appointments agreeably to 
their Recommendation untill further information on the sub- 
ject was communicated. 

7*^ Eesolved — That the Committee of Eecommendation 
send forward a transcript of their proceedings as soon as possi- 



ble to the Governor & Council and if necessary are requested 
to liire a person for the purpose of carrying the same to An- 
napolis. — ^ 

Peter Chaille ® Ghairmanj 
Whittington Clerk 

I do hereby certify to the Honourable the Governor and 
Council of the State of Maryland that the following four 
Sheets of paper contain a true and Accurate transcript of 
certain Eesolutions proposed to and Adopted by the people of 
Worcester County in order to carry into execution a plan for 
the purpose of recommending to the Executive fit and proper 
Characters to fill the different offices presented by the late 
Militia Law; Also a true transcript of the Proceedings of a 
Committee of Eecommendation which convened at Snow Hill 
in consequence of the adoption of the af s^ resolutions ; together 
with the Copy of an address to the Executive from the said 
Committee as well as the Copy of a Letter Signed by a majority 
of members of a foamer Committee convened on a skailar 

William Whittington Clerk 
of the Committee of Recommend^ 

The PEOOEEBIls■c^s of the Committee of Eecommeitoatioh'. 

On the Tuesday after the first Saturday in May being the 
day appointed by the resolutions adopted by the people on the 
18*^ of April for the meeting of the committee of Eecomanenda- 
tion the following persons convened at Snow Hill and from the 
inspection of the Returns of Elections for the respective Hun- 

" Colonel Peter Chains was one of four brothers who left France because 
of religious persecution. They came first to Boston, then two, Moses and 
Peta:, settled near Snow Hill. Peter or Pierre had ten daughters and 
one son Bonayenture who married Louise de Bessay. They had a son 
Colonel Peter Chaille who married Comfort Houston. Their daughter 
Comfort, Marguerite Chaille iiarri«d li&nm. hmg. The late Colooel Charl^ 



dreds appeared to be duly elected to serve as members in tbe 
said Committee of Kecommendation. 


Snow Hill Hundred 
Levin Handy * 
Sam^ Handy 

Pocomoke Hundred 
Thovofi Dixon 
William Oorbin * 
William Beavans 
Ja® Bacon 

Acquango Hund^ 
William Parker* 
BarHy Townsend 
Johnson Dennis 
Benj^ Dennis 
James Houston 

Buckingbaim Hun*^ 
Henry ^ Franklin 
Zadok.'Pumell * 
John Postly 
Esaua Williams 

Queponco Hund^ 
Elisha Pumell 
David Wilson * 
\Vm Purnell (C. 

William Morris * 
William Underbill 
Isaac Marshall * 

Boquetonorton H. 
John Bishop 
Thos Pumell 
Benj'^ Purnell 
J ohn Gunby * 

Wecomico Hund*^ 
William ChaiUe 
William Toadvine 
Jonathan Parsons 
Sam^ Davis* 
Jonathan Cathell 
Boaz Walston 

Mattoponi Hund<^ 
John Holland 
Nehemiah Holland 
Samuel Harper * 
John Johnson* 
William Holland 

Bob* Master Rich- 
ardson * 

Worcester Hund^ 
Abisha Davis 
Ja® Laws 

J oseph Gray * 
George Bell 

Pitts Creek Hund^ 
John Dennis.* 
John Buchanan * 
Jas Selby * 
J ohn Marshall * 

ChaiUe-Long was grandson of Levin Long and great grandson of Colonel 
Peter Chaille Long. Colonel Peter was a member of the Conventions of 
Maryland, one of the Signers of the Association of Freeman of Maryland 
and Colonel of the 1st Battalion Eastern Shore Maryland Raiment of 
Infantry. Mrs. Mary Dennis Grannan of Brookline, Mass. is also a 

^ Captain Benjamin Dennis — ^married Elizabeth Atkinson — ^was commis- 
sioned Captain of Wicomico Battalion of Worcester County June 21, 
1776. Lawyer and Member of House of Delegates 1788-92; died 1808. 
Left a son Captain James Dennis (1770-1850) who married Sally Maddox. 
They left a daughter Louisa (1806-1860) who married George Bishop, son 
of Charles — a desee»dant of H^ry Bishop of "DmrkarHi House" and 



The Committee proceeded to appoint a Chairman and Cd. 
William Morris was duly elected. — 

The committee then appointed William Whittington Esq., 

The comittee adjourns till 2 oc^ p. m. — 

The Committee met agreeably to adjournment and all mem- 
bers present. — On Motion — Several persons were put in nomi- 
nation to be balloted for in order to fill the different offices pre- 
scribed by the Militia Law, and upon examining the Ballots 
the following persons appeared duly elected and are recom- 
mended as fit and proper Characters to fiU the different offices 
to which their names are respectively annexed. — 

John Ghinby * 
Levin Winder * ^ 
Levin Handy * 

Isaac Houston 
John Holland 
Littleton Eobins t 
James Handy 
Edward Henry 
William Chaille 

Major General 
Brigadier General 

Leiuten* Col. of the 1^* Kegim* in this 

Leiut* Col of the 2^ Eegem* do. 
Major of the Lower Battalion 
Major of the Middle Battalion 
Major of the Acquango Batt^ 
Major of the Upper Battalion 
Major of the Pocomoke Battal^ 

"Snow Hill" farms; — George Bishop left one daughter Sallie Bishop who 
married George W. Covington. 

® General Levin Winder (1756-1819) son of Judge William Winder 
(1714-1792) and Esther Gillis. Among children of William were: (1) 
Prigcilla married David Wilson; (2) Captain John married (1) Betty 
Jonea, (2) Susanna Harmonson; (3) fWilliam married Charlotte Henry; 
(4) Esther married (1) Isaac Handy, (2) Judge William Polk. 

Before 1812, he was Speaker of the House of Delegates, and from 1812 
to 1815, he was Governor of the state. (Scharf — ^History of Maryland, 
Vol. Ill, p. 36). In 1816, he was a member of the Senate. 

t [This erasure is probably due to an error in naming five Majors for 
four Battalions, instead of four as provided by statute — Editor.'] 


Upper Compy 
Joseph Gunby Cap* 
Levi Henderson Leint. 

Schoolfield Ensign 
Lower Compy 
Benjamin Aydellott Capt. 
Anderson Patterson Leint. 
James Dickerson Ensign 

Samnel Harper Oap^ * 
Hezekiah Johnson Lein* 
Joshna Dner Ensign 

Rob* M. Richardson* Cap* 
George Richardson* Lein* 
James Selby Ensign 


Nehemiah Holland Cap* 
Samuel Holland Leint. 
William Holland* Ensign 

George Pnrnell Cap* 
Belitha Brittingham Lein* 
Jacob Teague Ensign 


John Selby Pnrnell Cap* 
Thomas Pnrnell of Tho. Leint. 
William Townsend^ Ensign 

1^* Compy 
levin PoUitt Cap* 
John Rock * Leint* 
Levin Long EnBign 

gtii Regt 

For Pitts Creek Hundred 
9*"^ Reg* 

9*^ Reg* 
" Eor Mattoponi Hundred 

For Boqiietonorton Hund'* 
9*51 Kegt 

For Snow Hill Hundred 




W»= Pumell Cap* 
Eob* Mitchell * Leiut. 
IThomas Puruell Enaiga 


Isaac Marshall * Cap* 
Hampton Bounds Leint. 
JkHol Pumell Ensign 


EpTirwim Wilson Cap* ^ 
Esme Purnell Leiut. 
Thomas RacklifiE Ensign 

Southern & Western Compy 
Levin Mitchell * Cap* 
J ohn Purnell Marshall Leiut. 
Levi Mills Ensign 

Middle Oompany 
John Eackliff Cap* 
Joshua Prideaux Leiut. 
John Waters* 


Hillary Pitts. Cfep* 
Belitha Powell Leiut. 
Josiah Hill Ensign 

9*^ Eeg* 

For Queponco Hundred 
9th iiegt 

9*^ Eeg* 

gth K^t 
For Buckingham Hund^ 


©Major Epbraim King Wilson (1771-1834) son of David (1737-1810) 
and Priscila Winder, sister of Governor Levin Winder. Graduated from 
Princeton 1789, Representative 20th and 21st Congress (1827-31). Mar- 
ried (1) Sallie Handy, daughter of Colonel Samuel Handy a member of 
the Maryland Convention; (2) married Ann Gunby daughter of General 
John Gunby. Among their descendants is Judge Ephraim King Wilson 
(1821-1891)— who graduated from Jefferson College in 1841 and was 
successively Judge, Representative in Congress, and United States Senator. 
Married (1) Mary Ann Dickerson. Their children were William Sidney 
Wilson and Mrs. Marion T. Harges ( Ella Wilson ) ; ( 2 ) married Julia A. 
Knox. Among their children are Ephraim K. Wilson, Mrs. Edward T. 
White (Mary Wikoii) aad Mrs. I^anklin Upshur (Eth#lyn Winder 



James Laws of Ja® Capt. 
Thomas Riley Lemt. 
Townsend * Ensign 


George Bell Cap* 
Abisha Davis Leiut. 
Lemuel Showell Ensign 


Thomas Handy Capt. 
Brittingham Beavans Leiut. 
Willi-am Bacon Ensign 


Ja^ Broadwater Capt. 
Samuel Taylor * Leiut. 
Bmith Johnson Ensign 

Levin Parsons Cap* 
Reuben Davis Leiut. 
Joshua Johnson 


J ohn Shockly Sr. of J ohn Cap* 
William Richardson Leiut. 
John ShocHy * of Elijah Ens^^ 


Samuel Davis Cap* * 
William Toadvine L* 
David Cathell Ensign 


Worcester Hundred 



Pocomoke Hundred 


Wecomico Hundred 

37*^ Reg* 

"Lemuel ShoweU (1762-1818) married Hannah Dale (1761-1937); left 
son Captain Lemuel (1794-1859) who married in 1821 Mary Eobins 
Bridell (1796-1852) daughter of Edward Bridell and Mary Fassett; left 
son William (1827-1884) who married Nancy Myers Le Fevre. Captain 
Lemuel was a large planter, merchant, and owner of ships engaged in the 
coastwise trade. Mrs. Philipps Lee Goldsborough is a descendant. 



Acqnango Hund^ 

George Hayward Cap* 
Jolin ToOTisend Leiut. 
James Dennis Ensign 


James Houston Cap* 
William Jones * Leiut. 
Elisha Jones Eloign 


Kobert Mitchell of Jn^' Pope 

Elijah Eooks leiut 
John Duncan * Ensign 

Commissioned the 24*^ June 1794 

Snow Hill May 7*^ 1794 


A few weeks past by letter We the subscribing part of a 
Committee convened at Snow Hill for the purpose of recom- 
mending to the Governor & Council fit and proper Characters 
to fill the different offices prescribed by the late Militia Law, 
requested your Honours to suspend any appointments agreea- 
bly to our Recomiendation till further information on the sub- 
ject was communicated. We do, therefore, now think it proper 
to inform you that the former plan of recommendation sent 
forward to you, was adopted from an impression of the neces- 
sity of soo^ such plan. — But since we find that a different and 
eligible plan had been proposed to the people and 
has been carried into execution which we approve of in prefer- 
ence of the other, as we conceive in all probability it will be 
more satisfactory to the people at large and at the same time 
as fit and as proper Characters are recommended by the latter 


as the circumstances attending tlie transaction of tlie Business 
would admit. — 

We are Gmtlemen y^® &c. 

John Gunby Benj^^ Dennis James B. Bohins^^ 
WilV^ Purnell John S. Purnell Levin Handy the only ex- 
Will^ Chaille Whittington ception he has is the 
Isaac Houston John Holland major of the Lower 
John Postly Samuel Handy Battalion 

James Bacon 

May 7. 94. I do hereby certify that the above is a true 
Copy of a letter deposited in my custody by the above men- 
tioned Gentlemen who signed the same in order to be trans- 
mitted to the Governor & Council. 

Whittington, Clerk. 

"Judge James B. Robins (1771-1826) of ''Fairfield" farm, son of 
Major John Purnell Robins (1742-1781) and Anna Spence. He married 
( 1 ) Elizabeth, daughter of Isaac Horsey. Among their living descendants 
are Dr. V^illiam L. Robins, Dean Thomas H. Spence and Judge John 
Spence of Texas. 

It is said that the Virginia County was named Northampton for the 
home shire in England of the pioneer Colonel Obedience Robins (1600- 
1662) of "Cheriton," Va., who married Grace O'Neill. First Commander 
of the Eastern Shore of Virginia, and for many years a member of its 
assembly. Their son Major John Robins (bom 1635) married in 1662 
Esther, daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Littleton. His grandson, Thomas, 
married in 1699, Elizabeth, daughter of Peter Bowdoin, the Huguenot 
immigrant. His great-grandson Thomas the second, married (1) Leah, 
daughter of Elias Whaley and granddaughter of General Edward Whaley of 
England, the regicide. Thomas the third was a son of Thomas the second 
and Leah. Their daughter married John FsMSsett, whose descendants may 
be found among the families of Cable Tingle, William Showell and George 
W. Covington. Thomas the second married (2) Andasia, daughter of John 
Purnell of Synpuxent. They left five children among whom were James 
Bowdoin above, and Littleton, Major Thomas M. Robins of West Point 
and James B. of Snow Hill are grandsons of Littleton, brother of Judge 
James B. 

I may add that persons seeking further information should consult 
Volume 16 as well as Volume 18 of the Archives of Maryland. The 
exposure of Worcester County to attack or to communication both by 



Colonel William Whittington succeeded Jolm Done, of Som- 
erset, as Chief Justice of the Fourth District of Maryland in 
1799, Judge Done, appointed under the Judiciary Act of 1790, 
having been promoted to the General Court. The Fourth Dis- 
trict (there being five in the State), included Caroline, Dor- 
chester, Somerset and Worcester Counties — all the Eastern 
Shore south of the Choptank. Judge Whittington served a 
little less than two years, when his tenure was ended by the 
Act of 1801, which likewise divided the Eastern Shore into 
two districts, Cecil, Kent, Queen Anne^s and Talbot being the 

William Polk, of Somerset, was appointed in Judge Whit- 
tington's stead, for party reasons. By Luther Martin, Whitting- 
ton sued Polk at the only assize of novel disseisin known to 
the Maryland law reports for "having disseised him of his 
freehold, with its appurtenances/' in the office of Chief Jus- 
tice of the County Courts of the Fourth District, and the 
General Court, upon a jury^s special verdict, found that when 
Whittington qualified " a right vested in him to hold olBce 
until his death or conviction in a court of law of misbehavior " ; 
and that the repealing Act of 1801 in depriving him of his 
office was " an infraction of his right and does not accord with 
sound legislation."' However, the General Court held that the 
Act was not repugnant to the State Constitution, and was 
within the power of the Legislature; and nonsuited Whitting- 
ton because the writ of assize of novel disseisin (first used in 
the reign of Henry II), the use of which in Elizabethan Eng- 
land in a certain action for the recovery of land had been set 
up as a precedent by Martin and Robert Goodloe Harper, had 
never been extended to Maryland, and could not be availed of 

the Pocomoke River and from Synepuxent Bay through the Inlets, together 
with the proximity of Virginia — ^made it necessary to keep a strong 
guard at home, so that we find the names of many of our suhstantial 
citizens on the lists of Militia Officers. On the seaside, moreover, wan 
located the Synepuxent Salt Works, to which prisoners from elsewhere 
were occasioBftlly sentenced to work. The Militia Lists thus grow in 


in the case at bar. PolFs counsel were Thomas James Bullitt, 
Gustavus Scott and Josiah Bayley. 

The Chief Justices of the County Oourt at first sat with 
two lay associates in each county, but under a further reor- 
ganization of the county courts by the Act of 1804, Polk, Done 
and James B. Eobins, of Worcester, became the Fourth Dis- 
trict bench. Judge Whittington returned to it as an Associate 
Justice in 1812, again succeeding Done, promoted to Chief 
Justice on the death of Polk. 

Judge Whittington, noted among the early judges of Mary- 
land for his mental attainments and judicial character, con- 
tinued on the bench until his death, in 1827, when his place 
was taken by his son-in-law, Judge Tingle. A quarter of a 
century later all the appointive judges were legislated out of 
office by the Constitution of 1851, which changed the circuits 
and made judgeships elective. 

Judge Whittington lived for many years in the old house 
on Federal Street in Snow Hill opposite the High School and 
which was built in 1795 by James Bound Morris, Clerk of the 
Court, and now owned by John W. Staton, Esq. The westerly 
part of Snow Hill lying south of Market Street between Church 
and Koss Streets had belcwiged to the Eev. John Ross, Hector 
of All Hallows Parish, and was divided into lots and sold in the 
latter part of the eighteenth century by his son Francis Ross. 
The plat of the Ross town lots is filed in the office of the Clerk 
of the Court in Snow Hill. 

Judge William Whittington^s daughter Charlotte married 
John Walter Smith. They left a son, the late United States 
Senator John Walter Smith (1845-1925) who married Mary 
Francis Richardson, whose daughter is Mrs. Arthur D. Foster. 



Paul E. Titswoeth^ Ph. D. 

East of the lordly Chesapeake are situated nine counties 
of Maryland; a storied land, one flowing with milk and honey — 
if the Biblical metaphor may be stretched to cover wheat, 
tomatoes, oysters, and crabs in abundance, — ^beloved of every 
native and dweUer, the Eastern Shore. Settled early in the 
seventeenth century by sturdy middle-class and courtly cavalier 
stock of purest English growth, this territory was in the middle 
of the stage during the colonial period and only just off stage, 
in the wings, during Revolutionary times. 

Geographically speaking, the Eastern Shore begins at the 
Susquehanna River and winds gently about the head of the 
Bay and stretches away down the Chesapeake for some two 
hundred mil^ to Cape Charles, Virginia. 

In travelling to and from Mt. Vernon and Virginia and 
Philadelphia and New York, George Washington almost always 
passed over the soil of the Eastern Shore. Going north he 
frequently entered its territory near Perryville on the Susque- 
hanna, going on thence through or staying in Elkton — fre- 
quently referred to as Head of Elk — and leaving the Shore 
near Iron Hill on the Delaware line. Going south, he reversed 
this itinerary. 

His diaries and letters mention a second route he somptiraes 
used when, headed northward, he crossed the Chesapeake from 
Annapolis to Rock Hall in Kent County. In this event he broke 
his journey at Chestertown, Kent's county seat, where he ate, 
or lodged the night, or both. Journeying southward over this 
route, he entered the Shore either at Warwick or Iron Hill, 
and, passing through, or staying in, Chestertown, he shipped 
from Rock Hall to Annapolis.^ 

^ Fitzpatrick, George Washmgtm Diaries; Sept. and Oct., 1774 aad 
Mardi, 179"!. 

Washington's belations to the eartebi^ shore. 171 

His diaries afford no evidence that his foot ever touched any 
part of the Eastern Shore south of Chestertown, although vague 
local legends exist to the contrary. The records show that he 
paid at least six different visits to Kent County. 

Washington honored Chestertown especially when, in April, 
1785, he attended, as a member of the Board of Visitors and 
Governors, the third commencement of Washington College,^ 

Head of Elk, mention of which recurs frequently in the 
Washington papers of the Revolutionary years, was a landing 
on Big Elk Creek, a main branch of Elk Eiver which flows 
into the Chesapeake a few miles below Elkton, in Cecil County. 
Here, at this strategically convenient yet rather secluded spot, 
General Washington maintained practically throughout the war 
a supply depot. Remains of the old wharf can still be seen 
near the abutments of the present cement bridge just outside 
Elkton on the Glasgow Road to Wilmington, Del. 

From this point stores could be hastened to the north when 
the British were harrying !N'ew Jers^ and eastern Pennsyl- 
vania and south when they threatened Baltimore and northern 

As the visitor looks at Elk River and its confluent, Big Elk 
Creek, today, it seems incredible that these two insignificant 

streams could ever have been of military importance. Yet 
twice particularly Head of Elk must have seen some feverish 

In 1777 Lord Howe embarked troops at New York, sailed 
with them down the Atlantic Coast, ran in between the Vir- 
ginia Capes, and came full speed up the Chesapeake to catch 
and destroy Washington's army and to take Philadelphia. He 
disembarked his men at Head of Elk, but found Washington 
informed of his movements. Skilfully the Continental Com- 
mander-in-Chief withdrew out of Howe's reach, keeping, how- 
ever, almost always in sight of the British. At last, after con- 
siderable jockeying for position, the American forces withdrew 

■Smith, Life of Rev. WilUmn Smith, D. D. 



from Maryland soil and took their stand at the Brandywine.^ 
Again in 1781, at the time of the battle of Yorktown, while 
Count de Grasse, the French fleet commander, held off the 
British at the mouth of the Chesapeake, Washington swooped 
down the Bay to aid Rochambeau who was worrying Corn- 
wallis. The American General moved from Head of Elk 
whence he had previously sent orders dovra the Eastern Shore 
for boats to convey men and supplies from Baltimore to York- 
town.* The union of the Continental troops with their French 
allies being more quickly effected by Washington's transport- 
ing his men by water, the two armies were able to close in on 
Lord Cornwallis, administer a decisive defeat, and thus bring 
the British king to sue for peace. 

Evidently Washington looked upon Head of Elk as a mili- 
tary position of considerable importance. When, in 1777, 
Lord Howe had sailed from N"ew York for nobody at first knew 
where, the Americans were rather inclined to suppose that the 
British were going to throw a line of forces across the twelve- 
mile wide neck of land separating Delaware from Chesapeake 
Bay waters. 

On September 7, 1777, Washington wrote Major General 
Heath from Wihnington : 

" Since General Howe'^s debarkation in Elk Eiver he has 
moved on about seven miles ; his main body now lies at Iron 
Hill, and ours near a village called Newport. In this position 
the armies are from eight to ten miles apart. It is yet very 
uncertain what General Howe'^s plan of operations will be. 
Some imagine that he will extend himself from the head waters 
of the Chesapeake to the Delaware, and by these, means not 
only cut off the counties on the Eastern Shore of Maryland 
and two of those belonging to Delaware State but will secure 

3 Conrad, Manoeuvering for a Battle ^lound," M&Ur Trmel, May 
and June, 1925. 

* Washington Letters for Sept. and Oct., 1781, MS. Division, Library of 



the horses, cattle, and forage of which there are considerable 
quantities in that country.® 

Losing the Delmarva Peninsula which provided goodly sup- 
plies, not only of grain, cattle, and horses, but also of men and 
boats, would have been a serious loss to Washington. 

More vital than his relations to the terrain of the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland were, of course, his relations to Eastern 
Shoremen. A number of the outstanding figures of Washing- 
ton's life time, particularly from about the openi;ig of the Revo- 
lution on, — men of war, men of peace, counselors and coopera- 
tors in the great adventure for the independence of the Colonies 
— sprai^ from, or were connected with, this trans-Chesapeake 

One of the glories of the American Revolution was the brav- 
ery displayed by the Maryland troops in the ill-starred battle 

of Long Island when the British drove the Americans out of 
New York and vicinity, forcing them to retreat down through 
New Jersey. The Maryland men received Washington's 
warmest commendation for their costly loyalty on this occa- 
sion. Eastern Shoremen played a distinguished part in this 
fight with the British, the independent companies from Kent, 
Queen Anne's, and Talbot Counties making up a considerable 
part of Colonel (later General) William Smallwood's command. 
Indeed, Small wood himself was a son of Kent County.^ 

In thinking of Washington and Eastern Shoremen, one needs 
to include in the roster of those in whom the General and 
President was interested and upon whom he relied, the names 
of James Rumsey, the inventor of the steamboat, the trial trip 
of which upon the Potomac engaged Washington's keen atten- 
tion and enlisted his approval ; William Carmichael, a friend 
of Washington and Lafayette, who was secretary of the Ameri- 
can Commissioners in Paris; John Dickinson, whose wisdom 
and patriotism elicited the remark from the Earl of Chatham 

Washington Letters, MS. Division, Library of Congress. 
• Buchholz, Crovemors of Marylo/nd. 

' Fitzpatrick, George Wask4ngton Dimies; Sept. 1784 and Aug. 1785. 



"that all attempts to impose servitude on such men must be 
in vain ; Commodore James Nicholson^ onetime ranking 
officer of the Continental navy; Samuel Chasej signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, whom Washington appointed 
associate judge of the Supreme Court of the United States; 
and William Paca, also a signer, whom the first president 
chose as district judge for Maryland because he had been a 
tried and conspicuous patriot.^ 

Chestertown claims as its son Charles Willson Peale who, 
with Gilbert Stuart, enjoys the honor of most frequently hav- 
ing painted portraits of Washington. Indeed, Peale painted 
Washington's first portrait in May, lY72.^ One of the most 
famous of all pictures of Washington is that by Peale which 
hangs in Nassau Hall at Princeton University. The diaries 
for July 3, 1787, mentioned Washington's sitting for this artist 
to paint a portrait from which a mezzotint was to be made. 

Not an Eastern Shoreman but a man evidently well ac- 
quainted with and enjoying the confidence of Eastern Shore 
folks/^ who lies taking his last sleep in old Shrewsbury church- 
yard in Kent County, was Ceneral John Cadwalader, whom 
Washington several times sent down the Shore on most im- 
portant errands. He was an aide of the Commander-in-Chief. 
He is partly famous because he gave the coup de grace to the 
disgraceful " Conway cabal,'' — ^which for a time threatened 
Washington's prestige, — by shooting — ^not mortally — General 
Conway in a duel. Conway congratulated Cadwalader, it is 
said, on his marksmanship, and later, apologizing to Wash- 
ington, fled the country. 

In June, 1786, Washington wrote to James Tilghman re- 
garding his son Colonel Tench who had just died : 

" Of all tiie nmnerous acquaintances of your lately deceased 

•A letter from Washington to W^illiam Fitzhugh, dated ITew York, 
Dec. 24, 1789, MS. Division, Library of Congress. 

• Fitzpatrick, George WasJiington Diaries; May, 1772. 
Washington's letter to President of Congress, dated Wilmington, Del., 
Sept. 1, 1777; MS. Division, Library of Congress. 

Washington's kelations to the eastebn shobe. 1^5 

son ... I may venture to assert (that excepting those of Lis 
niearest relatives) none could have felt his death with more 
regret than I did, because no one entertained a higher opinion 
of his worth or had imbibed sentiments of greater friendship 
for him than I had done . . . Amidst all your grief, there is 
the consolation to be drawn; that while living no man could 
be more esteemed, and since dead, none more lamented than 
Col. Tilghman.'^ " 

Writing to Thomas JeflFerson on August 1, 1786, Washington 
lamented again the early death of his friend. He " was form- 
erly of my family. (Washington meant of his military 
family.) He " died lately and left as fair a reputation as ever 
belonged to a human character.^' 

High praise this! Through the stately eighteenth century 
phraseology, one can see the great heart of Washington letting 
itself go in uttering his sorrow at the untimely death of Colonel 
Tench Tilghman who had been his aide from August, 1776, 
to the end of the war. Washington hardly spoke of any man, 
not a relative, in more affectionate terms. 

Although James Tilghman, the father, was a loyalist through- 
out the Revolution, Tench Tilghman, the son, enjoyed " in an 
unusual degree Washington's confidence and esteem/' It ap- 
pears that Colonel Tilghman wrote more of Washington's cor- 
respondence during the war than aay other of the four or five 
of the General^s aides. To Tilghman Washington assigned the 
difficult but delightful task of bearing the official news of Com- 
wallis' surrender to the Continental Congress. 

The trip of Tilghman from Yorktown to Philadelphia, in- 
volving a ride from Eock Hall through Ohestertown and Kent 
County to the Qual^er City, lacks only a great poet's touch to 
become as famous as that of Paul Eevere. 

One more personality of interest — ^not an Eastern Shoreman, 
to be sure, but one whose career is inextricably bound up with 
life on the Shore — is the Eev. William Smith, D. D., the first 

1* June 5, 1786; quoted from Tilghmim, Worthies of Talhot, 
Quoted from Tilghman. 



provost of the University of Pennsylvania and a friend of tlie 
first President On December 28, 1778, Washington attended 
in Philadelphia the celebration of the festival of St. John 
the Evangelist by the ^inost ancient and worshipful Society 
of Free and Accepted Masons/ being honored with the chief 
place in the procession. ... In the sermon ... by the Rev. 
Brother William Smith, D. D., Washington was alluded to 
as the Cincinnatus of America." In the procession to Christ 
Church, Dr. Smith walked beside General Washington.^* 

The contacts between Washington and Dr. Smith were likely 
frequent for Washington was much interested in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania and seems to have met Smith often in 
Philadelphia. On January 19, 1781, Dr. Smith proposed 
Washington's name for membership in the American Philo- 
sophical Society. He was elected. 

Again in August, 1789, Dr. Smith appears in the story when 
he with others presented George Washington in !N'ew York with 
an address from " The Bishops, the Clergy, and Laity of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the states of New-YorJc, New 
Jersey^ Pennsylvania^ Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and 
South Carolina/' 

And once again: General and Mrs. Washington were present 
in Philadelphia in 1791 at a meeting of this same Philosophical 
Society when Dr. Smith pronounced an encomium on the lately 
deceased president of the Society, Dr. Benjamin Pranklin.^* 

By themselves these facts might point to only a casual rela- 
tionship between Washington and Smith, yet they will gain in 
significance in the light of what follows. 

The story of Washington's relations to the Eastern Shore re- 
mains incomplete without a discussion of his connection with 

Baker, Itmerary of George Washington, 
^* Lippincott, George Washington and the University," in The General 
Magazine and Historical Chronicle of the University of Pennsylvania for 
Jan., 1926. 

Baker, Washington After the Revolution, 
*• Bak«r, Wmhington After the Re'&olution, 


one of the venerable institutions of the Shore, Washington 

In 1780, Dr. Smith left Philadelphia and settled in Chester- 
town, Maryland, as rector of the Chester Parish Church. 
Deeply interested in education as well as in religion and seeing 
that Maryland hoys would longer be hardly welcome at their 
former haunts in Cambridge and Oxford, he contrived in 1782 
to secure local and legislative support for elevating the Kent 
County School to the rank of college. Of this institution, 
which had been in existence as early as 1725, he became first 
president and retained the office for seven years. 

A very pleasant chapter in the -career of George Washington, 
that of his thoroughgoing interest in education, is yet to be 
written. He watched carefully over the college training, first 
of his nephews, and then of his step-son. He also contributed 
generously of his means to the support of many educational 
efforts in the nascent nation. 

Dr. Smith, as president of the new college in Chestertown, 
enlisted Washington's cooperation in his venture. Therefore, 
in the roster of contributors for the infant college Washington's 
name leads, like Abou Ben Adhem's, all the rest. In a letter 
to Dr. Smith, the General expressed great pleasure that the 
new institution was to bear his name.^"^ Washington College 
enjoys the distinction of being the first educational institution 
and the only college to possess the name by Washington'^s express 

Furthermore, General Washington accepted a place on the 
first Board of Visitors and Governors. He presided at its de- 
liberations when, in April, 1785, he attended the third com- 
mencement of the college at Chestertowm.^® 

Over the desk of the president of the college hangs a photo- 
static copy of an old mildewed diploma which bears witness 
that, on June 24, 1789, Washington College conferred on George 
Washington the degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa. The 

^'Washington College Catalogue. 

" Smith, Life of Rev. William Smith, D, D. 



original of this document may be seen in the Manuscript Di- 
vision of the Library of Congress. 

That General — ^just become President — Washington deeply 
appreciated this token of distinction and esteem from his name- 
sake college may be seen in the letter which he wrote Dr. Smith 
and the Board from 'New York on July 11, 1789, after the 
reception of the diploma : 

" Gentlemen: Your very affectionate Address, and the hono- 
rary Testimony to your regard which accompanied it, call 
forth my grateful acknowledgment. 

" A recollection of past events, and the happy termination 
of our glorious struggle for the establishment of the rights of 
Man cannot fail to inspire every feeling heart with veneration 
and gratitude toward the Great Euler of Events, who has so 
manifestly interposed in our behalf. 

"Among the numerous blessings which are attendant upon 
Peace, and as one whose consequences are of the most important 
and extensive kind, may be reckoned tiie prosperity of OoUeges 
and Seminaries of Learning. 

"As^ in civilized societies, the welfare of the state and happi- 
ness of the people are advanced or retarded, in proportion as 
the morals and education of the youth are attended to; I can- 
not forbear, on this occasion to express the satisfaction which I 
feel on seeing the increase of our seminaries of learning through 
this extensive country, and the general wish which seems to 
prevail for establishing and maintaining these valuable insti- 

"It affords me peculiar pleasure to know that the Seat of 
Learning under your direction hath attained to such proficiency 
in the Sciences since the Peace; and I sincerely pray the great 
Author of the Universe may smile upon the Institution, and 
make it an extensive blessing to this country." ^® 

Wftshington College Ofttalogue for 1844. 

ST. joMis[\ CMVmjM, ®0Wjaf> ooirirTy, 



Hbistby J. Berkley. 

The motlier chuicli of St. John'sj Ellicott City, Howard 
County, was Christ Church, located at Guilford, then Anne 
Arundel County. This Church, known as Queen Caroline Par- 
ish, was constituted out of the " heads of All Hallow's, St. 
Ann's and St. Margaret's Parishes, themselves constituted by 
an Act of the Assembly of 1692, comprising all the territory to 
the northwestward of the Western Bay Shore, in what, then, 
included the boundaries of Ann Arundel County, extending 
to the upper waters of the main Patuxent, and to the upper 
reaches of the South Branch of the Patapsco River. 

Queen Caroline Parish was established by Act of Assembly 
in the year 1728, and covered a wide, and at that date sparsely 
peopled region. The first church was a frame building of 
small size, later replaced by a brick one. In 172 9 the Parish 
had the following precincts, later called Hundreds in the vestry 
records, namely, the Upper and Lower, Winkapen Neck, Upton, 
Delaway, Elkridge, Huntington and Deliver Bottom, and at a 
later period Patapsco Eorge Hundred. 

Most of these names are now lost, and were it not for the 
mention of the " Polly " as the seat of Charles Carroll in one 
of the Vestry proceedings, it would be impossible to determine 
in which Hundred the present Church of St. John stood. As, 
however, the Manor is no great distance from lie church, it is 
presumable it is located in what was Deliver Bottom precinct. 

The duties of a Queen Caroline Vestryman in pre-Revolu- 
tionary days were of a much more autocratic nature than at the 
present writing; — ^they levied poll taxes of tobacco on the tax- 
ables of the parish, or as tobacco decreased, shillings; — they 
paid the sheriff's wage, appointed inspectors of tobacco at Elk- 
ridge Landing on the Patapsco River. Special taxes on each 


umrhM^j} MiftT€ieiCAi< uaomzim^. 

poll were levied when a new chapel-of-ease was to be built, they 
collected a poll tax on bachelors by order of the Assembly 
(1763)j they superintended carefully the erection of new build- 
ings and chapels for the parish, and when these were finished, 
arbitrarily assigned to the parishioners seatings, which some- 
times were not in accord with the wishes of those who were to 
hold them. Furthermore, the parishioners were ordered to 
attend regularly on Sundays, and if they did not do so were 
very properly fined. At certain seasons the Vestry sat in 
Court on the morals of the neighborhood, while the men and 
women guilty of misconduct were severely admonished of their 
sins, and in no infrequent instances were ordered to leave the 
parish. This church is somewhat notable in colonial times for 
having a female sexton, with the entire approval of the Vestry, 
but she was a well married woman. 

The mother church has had quite a number of notable clergy- 
men officiating within its v/alls. The first Rector was a Scots- 
man, the Rev. James McGill, who served the church from 1728 
to the time of the Revolution. In 1781, the Rev. James Cla- 
gett officiated, followed in 1785 by the Rev. Mr. Kixon. Then 
there was a gap in the ministry, ended by the election of the 
Rev. Richard H. Waters in 1841, followed a year later by the 
Rev. D. Wyatt. In 1846 the pulpit was filled by the Rev. J. 
B. Barker, a missionary at Laurel, who was succeeded in 1857 
by the Rev. A. J. Berger of Pennsylvania. In 1848 this 
clergyman resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. Waters, who 
in his turn was again followed by Mr. Berger. At intervals, 
Ae o£&ciating minister at St. John's alternated between that 
and Christ Church. This Church is now closed, the Rev. Mr. 
Murphy having resigned his charge several years ago.* 

The first St. J ohn's Church was, probably, a frame structure, 
for the growing community adjacent to EUicott's Mills. The 
first ascertainable notice of its existence is contained in the 
Diocesan Journal of 1832, when the Rev. Charles Williams, 
D. D., the Rector, reports having ten communicants. His 

1 From the Vestry Books of Ciirist Church, Queen Caroline Parish. 


administration was followed in 1834 by tliat of tlie Rev. Hiigli 
T. Harrison, resident at Oakland Mills, wiio, for a time, pre- 
sided equally over the affairs of St. John^s and Christ Churches. 
During his administration, however, the connection between 
the two churches was formally dissolved (1839), and Dr. Wyatt 
officiated at the mother church. 

In 1860, under the rectorship of Dr. Harrison, a new stone 
building — ^the present one — was built at a cost of $8,000.00. 
Mr. Harrison continued his prosperous administration of the 
parish until the year 1866, when failing health compelled his 
resignation^ and he retired to live in Baltimore City until his 
death. At the time of his resignation the church numbered 
thirty communicants. He was succeeded in the same year by 
the Eev. W. A. Mitchell 

Ei>wABi> S. Delaplaine. 

Paet TwENTY-THntn. 

{Copyright, 1926, ty Edward 8. Delaplaine.) 

A Frieistd oj* the Federal Constitutioit. 

"So far as the sentiments of Maryland, with respect to the proposed 
Constitution, have come to my knowledge, they are strongly in favor of 
it. . . . Mr. Carroll of CarroUton, and Mr. Thos. Johnson, arc declared 
friends to it." — George Washdngton to James Madison, November 5, 1787. 

" I shall think myself with America in general greatly indebted to the 
[members of the Fed^al] Convention and possibly we may confess it 
when it may be too late to avail ourselves of their Moderation and Wis- 
dom.'* — Thomas Johnson to George Washington, December 11, 1787. 

Althougli he had asked to be excused from attending the 
sessions of the Oonstitutional ConTention at Philadelphia, Mr. 


MUKYLANB nmmmcAL ka^azine. 

Johnson was not opposed in any way to the new plan of Federal 
Government. Indeed, his conservative temperament, his fond- 
ness for system and order, his vivid experience with a weak 
Confederation — as well as his great admiration for General 
Washington, who had laid down his sword to take up his pen 
for Nationalism — all placed Johnson naturally on the side of 
the proposed Constitution. 

The War Governor knew that Washington had presided over 
the deliberations of the great Convention. And he also know 
that such men as Benjamin Franklin, James Wilson, John 
Dickinson, Eoger Sherman, and John Kutledge — outstanding 
leaders with whom he had served more than a decade before in 
the Continental Congress — ^had done the best they could to 
devise a system of Government that would promote the welfare 
of the Nation. The Articles of Confederation had been fall- 
ing to pieces : and Johnson took the view of General Washing- 
ton and Doctor Franklin that while the Constitution was not 
perfect in every respect — ^Washington himself admitted that it 
was a compromise " tinctured with some real though not radi- 
cal defects" — it was the best Constitution that could be ob- 
tained under the circumstaaces ; and at all events it was the 
final hope of saving the Union from dissolution 

Furthermore, Johnson was well pleased with the novel scheme 
of separate Federal and State sovereignties, giving, however, 
aanple powers to Congress, including the power to regulate com- 
merce with foreign Nations and among the several States. 
And, inasmuch as Maryland was one of the smaller States, he 
was particularly pleased with Article I, Section 3, which gave 
equality of representation in the United States Senate. All 
in all, he was delighted with the work of the framers. 

And so, while Johnson had appeared to be indifferent to the 
form of Government prior to 1787, his interest in the Federal 
Plan was now waxing stronger. Washington, crying out to 
the leaders in despair to save the Union from chaos, had already 
begun his campaign for ratification; and Johnson, who had 
respooded so promptly to his appeals for help during the Bevo- 



tion, now determined to strengthen his hand in the crucial 
battle for i^'ationalism. Congress having submitted the pro- 
posed Constitution to the several States, Johnson agreed to 
serve again in the Maryland House of Delegates, the people's 
formn, where he could try to strengthen public sentiment in 
favor of ratification. 

During the Summer of the Federal plan was warmly 
debated in the press and around the countryside of Maryland ; 
and, as Autumn approached, it became evident that the plan 
would be an important issue at the elections in all sections of the 
State. At the same time it was also becoming apparent that the 
financial and commercial interests of Baltimore — as in Phila- 
delphia and other growing centres of industry — ^would throw 
their influence in favor of a more stable Government. Yet, the 
largest vote in Baltimore for the House of Delegates was re- 
ceived by Samuel Chase, who while regarded at first as friendly 
to " an increase of the powers of Congress,'' was soon to sponsor 
conditional ratification, which was to be employed as the strat- 
egy of the Anti-Federalists. K'evertheless, the sentiment among 
the people appeared to be so " strong and general " in favor of 
the Constitution that it was believed Chase would be bound to 
vote for its ratification even if elected to a State Convention.*^* 
And so, although two of Maryland's delegates to the Phila- 
delphia Convention — ^Attorney-General Luther Martin and At- 
torney John Francis Mercer — ^had left their seats thoroughly 
disgusted with the Federal plan, and although it was evident 
that a determined opposition would be made against ratification, 
the Father of his Country was greatly cheered when he heard 
that Governor Johnson had joined the camp of the Federalists. 
On November 5, 1787, the great Virginian advised Madison 
regarding the sentiment for ratification ITorth of the Potomac. 

So far," declared Washington, " as the sentiments of Mary- 
land, with respect to the proposed Constitution, have come to 
my knowledge, they are strongly in favor of it ; hut as this is 

''^^Dcmiel Carroll to James Madison, October 28, 1787. 



the day on whicli the Assembly of that State ought to meet, I 
will say nothing in anticipation of the opinion of it Mr. Car- 
roll of CarroUton, and Mr. Thos. J ohnson, are declared friends 
to it/' 

While the 6th of Ifovember was the proper day for the open- 
ing of the Legislature, the House was unable to secure a quorum 
until the 14th. Thomas Johnson and Abraham Faw, of Fred- 
erick County, were in their places when the House convened. 
The other two members of the Frederick County Delegation — 
ex-<jovemor Thomas Sim Lee and Richard Potts, a young law- 
yer who had accompanied Johnson on his expedition to New 
J ersey in the early part of the Revolution — were absent. And 
although the House received a report on JSTovember 19 th from 
the Elections Committee — ^Delegate Allen Quynn, of Annapolis, 
was again chairman of this Committee and Delegate Johnson 
one of the members — that Johnson, FaAV, Lee and Potts had 
been duly elected Delegates for Frederick County,^ "^^ it does 
not appear that either Potts or Lee were present at any time 
during the session. 

Once more Delegate Johnson was called on to assist in pre- 
paring a great many important measures. Among the more 
important were bills to secure the payment of imposts ^nd 
duties imposed by law; to raise the supplies for the current 
year; to pay the salaries of officials and the other expenses of 
the State; to provide for the continuance of civil suits in the 
General and County Courts ; and to amend the jurisdiction of 
the High Court of Chancery. 

Johnson also served with Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who 
was now a member of the State Senate, in making an investi- 
gation of a loan of 270,000 florins procured in Holland in 
1782, when Matthew Ridley, Agent of the State of Maryland, 
contracted with Messrs. iJficholas and J acob Vanstaphorst, mer- 

''^*The Writings of George Washington, (edited by W. C. Ford), Vol. 
XI, page 182. Original letter in the New York Public Library, New York 

Votes and Proceedmgs of the House of Delegates, November, 1787, 
page 4. 



chants of Amsterdam, for the delivery of tobacco within the 
State. Delegate Johnson and Senator Carroll admitted in their 
report that the money was obtained from individuals in Holland 
on the credit of the State, but held that the loan had no con- 
nection with the contract and the claim of the Messrs. Van- 
staphorst for damages was unreasonable and unjust. Johnson 
was made chairman of a committee to prepare a measure in 
pursuance of the report; and a bill was passed repealing the 
Act respecting the loan passed at the November session of 

Another assignment that was given to Johnson at this session 
of the Legislature was to consider a petition from John Fitch 
for the exclusive right to build and navigate steamboats in 
Maryland. Mr. Johnson was chairman of the committee, the 
other members being Gabriel Duvall of the City of Annapolis, 
James Carroll of Anne Arundel, Jeremiah NichoUs of Kent, 
and George Dent of Charles. ^'^'^ 

Who had been the first American to catch the vision of the 
steamboat ? John Fitch or James Rumsey ? This was the 
question the committee was called upon to decide. Of course, 
Johnson knew that Rumsey had been experimenting with the 
principle of steam propulsion as early as 1785, because the 
inventor had asked him to manufacture copper cylii^ders for 
the steamboat in the Fall of that year.^'''^ 

Fitch, who was a native of Connecticut in the 45th year of 
his age, had been conducting his experiments at Philadelphia 
and had demonstrated his steamboat on the Delaware to mem- 
bers of the Constitutional Convention on August 22nd. Fitch 
now represented that the idea of propelling boats by steam 
"first struck him" in April, 1785. Johnson thereupon un- 
dertook to ascertain wKen Rumsey first thought of the idea. 

Laws of Ma/rylmd, November, 1787, Chapter XXXIIL 
Votes and Proceedings of the House of Delegates, November, 1787, 
page 3. Committee appointed on November 15, 1787. 

Egshihit to Public Document, 189, 27th Congress, 7th Seseion. 



In the hope of securing definite information on the subject, 
Johnson sent the following letter of inquiry to Washington: 2*^® 

Thomas Johnson to Geokge Washington. 

Annapolis 16 November 178Y. 


I happen to be one of a Committee to report on the petition 
of Mr. John Fitch of Pennsylvania for an exclusive Privilege 
in this State, similar to what he has obtained in Virginia and 
several others, to propel vessells through the water by the Force 
of Steam Engines. I have found a necessity to mention to the 
Committee a Conversation I had with Mr. Rumsey in the 
Month of October, I think, in 1785 on the principle he expected 
to effect his boat Navigation when he told me that he was to 
gain his first power by Steam. It was so different from what 
I conjectured and had been led some how to believe that I 
remarked he had treated you with indelicacy by exhibiting his 
Model and Experiment before you on a false principle and 
obtaining your Certificate. He told me that although he ex- 
hibited on a different principle to prevent his being traced he 
mentioned and explained to you alone that he relied on the 
Force of Steam to gain his first power. I remarked that it 
was well he did since there might be no other way of protecting 
his exclusive Eight but by recurring to you. In the present 
Situation of the Committee and with the strongest Desire to 
do Justice between Mr. Eumsey and Mr. Fitch the Committee 
request, if that is consistent with your Situation, that you will 
be pleased to inform me by a Line whether Mr. Eumsey dis- 
closed to you any Idea of gaining his first power by Steam as 
he asserted to me or not. 

I am Sir with great Eespect 

Your most obedient and most humble Servant, 

Th. Johnson. 

'"^^The Papers of George Wmhingtod, Vol. 239, Liln-ary of Coiigre«s, 
Manuscript Division. 



Washington replied that while the use of steam was not a 
part of Rxunsey's original plan, meverthelees Rumsey conceived 
the idea of steam propulsion before it was conceived by Fitch. 
Washington's reply follows : 

GEORai! Washington to Thomas Johnson. 

Mount Vernon, 22 November, 1787. 


The letter with which you have been pleased to honor me, 
dated the 16th inst, came to my hand the day before yesterday. 
By tomorrow's Post this answer will be forwarded to you. 

Mr. Eumsey has given you an uncandid account of his ex- 
planation to me of the principle on which his Boat was to be 
propelled against stream. At the time he exhibited his model 
and obtained Certificate, I have no reason to believe that the 
use of steam was contemplated by him, sure I am it was not 
mentioned; and equally certain I am, that it would not apply 
to the project he then had in view ; the first communication of 
which was made to me in September, 1784 (at the Springs in 
Berkley). The Novr. following, being in Eickmond, I met 
Mr. Rumsey there who was at that time applying to the Assem- 
bly for an exclusive Act. He then spoke of the effect of Steam 
and the conviction he was under of the usefulness of its appli- 
cation for inland Navigation; but I did not then conceive, nor 
have I done so at any moment since, that it was suggested as 
a part of his or^iml plan, but rather as the ebullition of his 

It is proper, however, for me to add that some time after 
this Mr. ritch called upon me on his way to Eichmond and 
explaining his scheme, wanted a letter from me, introductory 
of it to the Assembly of this State the giving of which I de- 
clined ; and went on to inform him, that tho' I was bound not 
to disclose the principles of Mr. Rumsey's discovery, I could 

George Washington Letter Book, Library of Congress, Manuscript 




venture to assure him that the thought of applying steam for 
the purpose he mentioned was not original, but had been men- 
tioned to me by Mr. Eumsey — ^this I thought myself obliged 
to say, that whichever (if either) of them was the dicoverer 
might derive the benefit of the invention. To the best of my 
recollection of what passed befeween Mr. Eumsey and me, the 
foregoing is an impartial recital. 

Permit me to ask you, my good Sir, if a letter which I wrote 
to you during the sitting of your last Assembly, enclosing one 
from Mr. Wilson to me, concerning the confiscated property 
of (I think) Maj^ Dunlap & of Glasgow ever reached your 
hands — and if it did, whether any thing was, or can be done 
in that business. As an Executor of the Will of Col<^ Thomas 
Colvil it behooves me to know precisely what is to be expected 
from that matter as a large sum is due from that Company 
to his Estate and I am the more anxious to do it immediately 
as Mr. Wilson who is concerned in the House of Dunlap & C*^ 
is about to leave the Country. 

With grtat esteem and regard, 

I am, Sir 
most Obed* W>^^ Servant, 

Johnson's committee also received an affidavit of a reliable 
witness to the effect that Rumsey declared as early as the 
month of March, 1784, "that a boat might be constructed 
to work by steam, and that he intended to give it a trial.^'' 
Rumsey's public demonstratimi, it is to be admitted, was 
delayed until December 3, 1787 ; but his steamboat had 
been ready in March when a rise in the Potomac, pending the 
the making of repairs to the boiler, brought down a mass of 
debris which tore the craft from its moorings and badly dam- 
aged it. The committee felt that, as Rumsey had conceived 
the idea of steam propulsion as early as 1784, even if not be- 
fore, whereas Pitch did not conceive the idea until 1785, accord- 
ing to his own admission, therefore it would mi be proper to 



grant Fitch's petition and ignore Eumsey, a native of Mary- 
land. On December 18, Jolinson accordingly wrote to Rumsey 
from Annapolis that Fitch's application had been rejected. I 
esteem myself," wrote Johnson,^^^ " no ways competent to de- 
cide on philosophical or mechanical principles, but if yon can 
simplify the steaan engine, render it cheap, and apply its powers 
to raise water in great quantities, for the purposes of agricul- 
ture and water-works of all kinds, or apply the powers more 
immediately, as has been much the conversation between us at 
times, every man may easily perceive a vast field of improve- 
ment will thereby be opened, which I most sincerely wish you 
may largely reap the good fruits of.'^ 

Governor Johnson's hope that Rumsey would be rewarded 
was never fulfilled. After securing help from Doctor Frank- 
lin and others in Philadelphia, Rumsey went to England where 
he constructed a new steamboat ; but just as he was ready for 
an exhibition on the Thames the craft was levied upon for debt. 
Later, when about to deliver a lecture to raise some needed cash, 
he was stricken ill; and on the night before Christmas in 1Y92 
— when Mr. Johnson was serving as Associate Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court — ^the unfortunate inventor died 
in poverty. But his name will never die. For the correspond- 
ence between George Washington and Thomas Johnson regard- 
ing the invention had luckily been preserved ; and in the year 
1839 Oongross adopted a resolution requesting President Van 
Buren to present to James Rumsey, Jr., the only surviving 
child, a suitable gold medal " commemorative of his father's 
services and high agency in giving to the world the benefits of 
the steamboat.'^ Thus the Government of the TJnited States 
has officially approved the report presented by Thomas John- 
son to the Maryland Legislature in 1787, holding that James 
Rumsey was the first American who found a method of suc- 
cessfully propelling a vessel by the use of steam. 

It was on the 23rd of iNovember, 1787, that the Maryland 

Ixliibit to IPuMic DoctimeEt 189, 27tli CoBgress, 7th Seeeion. 



House of Delegates conunenced its consideration of the Federal 
Constitution. On that day Delegate Johnson presented to 
Speaker Thomas C. Deye a communication from the Governor 
of Virginia enclosing resolutions of the Virginia Assembly oa 
the subject^^^ 

After the message from Virginia was read to the members 
of the House, it was moved that all the Maryland deputies 
to the Federal Convention — Mr. Jenifer^ Dr. McHenry, and 
Daniel Carroll, the three who had signed their names to the 
instrument, as well as the recalcitrants, Attorney-General Mar- 
tin and Attorney Mercer — should be requested to appear in the 
House on the 29th of the month to give an account of "the 
proceedings of the said Convention." Samuel Chase sup- 
ported this suggestion. And many friends of the Ccmstitution 
— among them Faw of Frederick — voted with him. Johnson 
voted against it. It is supposed that he felt the speeches were 
unnecessary and a waste of time. However, the motion was 
carried by a vote of 28 to 22. As a matter of fact, there did 
exist very little necessity for oral reports at this time, because 
immediately afterwards the House resolved without opposition 
that the proceedings of the Federal Convention, as transmitted 
by Oongress, should be submitted to a Gonvantion of the people 
of the State " for their full and free investigation and de- 

On November 24th, Mr. Chase was excused from attendance, 
as was also his colleague from Baltimore, David MeMechen; 
and the Federalist members of the House — ^perhaps taking ad- 
vantage of Chase's absence — determined to make arrange- 
ments for the holding of a State Convention without waiting to 
hear from the members of the Federal Convention. Accord- 
ingly, on November 26th the Lower House proceeded to arrange 

Votes md ProeeeMnffs of. ike Mo^9e cf Delates, Nov«feer, 1787, 
page 9. 

Ihid., page 10. 

*»*Mr. McMechffli appeared in the "K&me on November 29th; but Mr. 
Chase was absait until Beeesiber 5th. 



special elections for delegates to the proposed Convention. A 
motion was made that the elections should be held throughout the 
State on the first Monday in April, 1788. Many of the more 
ardent Federalists in the Legislature, realizing that prompt 
action in arranging for a State Convention would give the 
enemies of liie Federal Constitution less opportunity to 
strengthen their defense, were favorable to having the elections 
not later than January. Johnson could see no valid reason 
for delaying the elections until April and he voted against the 
motion. But it was carried by the narrow majority of one vote 
— ^24 to 23. The date of the elections having been settled, it 
was then decided without objection that the members of the 
Convention should meet in Annapolis on Monday, April 21, 

On the following day — November 27, 1787 — a slight change 
was made in the House resolutions. The amendment provided 
in effect that the aproval of the Federal Constitution by a 
majority of the delegates in the Maryland Convention was 
sufficient to assure ratification thereof by the State. The Fred- 
erick County legislators differed in th^ir opinion of the amend- 
ment : Mr. Faw being for it and Mr. Johnson against it. Per- 
haps the ex-Governor felt this was a question the members of 
the Convention should be allowed to decide for themselves. 
However, the amendment was adopted by a vote of 28 to 21. 

After the adoption of the amendment, Delegate Johnson was 
designated to present the resolutions regarding the proposed 
State 'Convention to the Senate; and he promptly delivered 
the House resolutions to President Plater on the 27th of 
Wovmnber, l787.2s« 

Meanwhile, the members of the Senate had voted to hold 
the elections in Maryland on the third Wednesday in January 
so that the State Convention could convene early in March. 
The language of the Senate resolution was plainly Federalist 

lUd., page 13. 

28« Yofes' rmd Proceedings of the House of Delegates, November, 1787, 
page 14; Votes md Proceedings of the Senate, November, 1787, page 6. 



in tone, for while the Lower House recommended a Convention 
for " full and free investigation and decision ^' the Upper House 
voted for a Convention for " assent and ratification." 

On the 29th and 30th, the members of the Legislature heard 
the reports from the deputies to the Philadelphia Convention. 
The three Marylanders who had signed the Constitution, while 
accustomed to public life, were not lawyers, nor did they possess 
any outstanding ability in oratory or debate. Daniel of St. 
Thomas Jenifer was a capitalist and man of affairs, 54 years 
of age; Dr. McHenry was only 34 years old, while Daniel 
Carroll, a farmer, was scarcely over 31. 

In comparison with these three friends of the Federal Con- 
stitution, Luther Martin, was a powerful figure. A brilliant 
graduate of Princeton, a forceful orator, a lawyer of ability, 
Attorney-General of Marylaad for about nine years, Martin was 
now approaching at 43 the zenith of his career. While it does 
not apppear from the House Records that Mr. Mercer — ^the 
28-year-old lawy^ who also opposed the Federal Constitution 
at Philadelphia — ^was present in the House of Delegates, the 
Attorney-General was fully prepared to make his vehement 
arraignment of the members of the Federal Convention. He 
declared that as soon as he took his seat at Philadelphia he saw 
that the selfish aggrandizement of the several States — particu- 
larly, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Virginia — appeared to 
be sought after more than the general welfare of America. He 
feared not only that the large States might increase their power 
over the smaller ones, but also that the National Government 
might interfere with those Anglo-Saxon rights for which the 
Colonists gave their lives and fortunes during the American 
Revolution. And therefore, he said, he opposed the ConstitU' 
tion " in every stage of its progression.'^ But realizing that 
his arguments were "fruitless and unavailing,''' he left the 
Convention along with several other members before the Con- 
stitution was completed. " So destructive," declared Martin 

Votes <md Proeeedmgs of the Senate, Kovanber, 1787, page 5. 



in conclusion, " do I consider the present System [the Con- 
stitution] to the happiness of my Country, I would cheerfully 
sacrifice that share of property with which Heaven had blessed 
a life of industry; I would reduce myself to indigence and 
poverty ; and those who are dearer to me than my own existence 
I would entrust to the care and protection of that Providence 
who hath so kindly protected me — if on those terms only could 
I procure my Country to reject those chains which are forged 
for it." 

But the mighty Martin was unable to stem the tide of Nation- 
alism. Johnson and other influential Federalists in the Mary- 
land Legislature were too well acquainted with George Wash- 
ington to believe that he was conspiring to increase the power 
of Vii^inia and to " subvert the lib^ies of the United States/' 

Powerful as he was as lawyer and orator, Martin was sadly 
incorrect in his opinion of the Federal Constitution. And in 
his peroration he im.wittingly painted a picture of his own 
future, for some years later the Legislature imposed a tax of 
five dollars per annum upon every lawyer in the State to keep 
him from destitution. 

Finally, on the 1st of December, 1787, the Senate took under 
consideration the House resolutions calling for the elections in 
April. The Senators still preferred to have the elections in 
January in order to expedite the ratification of the Constitu- 
tion; but they realized that it was more prudent to adopt the 
House resolutions than " run the hazard of protracting the 
session by adhering to their own resolutions. So they decided 
to accede to the wishes of the members of the Lower House to 
hold the elections as well as the Convention in April, 1788.^®® 

Thus the machinery was complete in Maryland for the con- 
sideration of the Federal Constitution. The State Printer was 
ordered to print two thousand copies of the proposed Constitu- 
tion together with the Legislature's resolutions while the Printer 

Jonathan ElUot, Debates in the Several State Conventions, on the 
Adoption of the Federal Constitution, Vol. I, page 344. 

Votes cmd Proceedings of the Senate, Kovember, 1787, page 7. 



at Frederick was directed to print in German three hundred 
copies of the same for distribution in the State. 

The news that Maryland was planning to defer consideration 
of the Federal Constitution until April, 1Y88, was somewhat 
disconcerting to the Federalists in other parts of the United 
States. Writing from New York under date of December 9, 
1787, James Madison, advised Thomas Jefferson, who was 
now serving as American Minister in France, that the Fed- 
eralists continued to be sanguine that the new plan would be 
ratified by the States although opposition was rapidly growing 
in Virginia and Maryland. " The Constitution proposed by 
the late Convention, said Mr. Madison,^^*^ " engrosses almost 
the whole political attention of America. . . . Virginia has 
set the example of opening a door for amendments, if the Con- 
vention there should chuse to propose them. Maryland has 
copied it. ... A more formidable opposition is likely to be 
made in Maryland than was at first conjectured. Mr. Mercer, 
it seems, who was a member of the Convention, though his 
attendance was but for a short time, is become an auxiliary to 
Chase. Johnson, the CarroUs, Gov^ Lee, and most of the other 
characters of weight, are on the other side.'' 

Meanwhile, the annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
Potomac Company was held in JSTovember, having been post- 
poned several months while Washington, who was President 
of the Company, was in Philadelphia. It was shown at the 
meeting that scarcely more than ten thousand pounds Sterling 
had been paid into the Company by the stockholders^, and it was 
accordingly decided to ask the States of Virginia and Maryland 
for legislation that would enable the -Company expeditiously 
to compel the delinquent stock subscribers to pay in the balance 
of their subscriptions. Prompt action in this direction was 
taken by the Virginia Assembly. Shortly after the measure 
was adopted at Richmond, Washington appealed to former 
Governors Thomas Johnson and Thomas Sim Lee — ^both were 

■»o The Writings of J&mm UmMsm (edited by HuBt), Vol. V, page 62. 


still serving as Directors of the Potomac Company — ^to urge the 
adoption of a similar measure at Annapolis. Washington's 
communication to them follows : 

Geokge Washington to Johnsok anb Lbb. 

Mount Vermon, Dec^W 9*^ 1787. 


Presuming that Col^ Fitzgerald according to his promise has 
communicated to you the vote of the Potomack passed at 
the last general Meeting, held at George Town, and the 
measures consequent of it, taken by the Directors, I shall 
trouble you with no more than the result which you will find 
in thB enclosed authenticated Act of the Assembly of this 

It is scarcely necessary to observe to you^ Gentlemen^ that 
unless a similar one is obtained from your Assembly, during 
its present Session that the work of ^Navigation will soon be 
at a stand. You know what steps have been taken, and how 
ineffectually, to collect the Dividends from the tardy members. 
The others think it hard to be further called on . . . until the 
arrearages are paid up. 

To recover these will be a work immense time under the 
existing law. 

You know best under what form to bring this matter before 
your Assembly. If by way of Petition you will please to have 
one drawn, and if it is necessary the name of the President 
should be affixed thereto I hereby authorize you to give it my 
signature with great esteem 

I am Gentlemen 

Y^ Most Obedt & Very Hl>le Servant, 
G^ WASHiisraTON. 

Ex-Governor Lee, although legally entitled to serve as a 
member of the Frederick County delegation, had not been 

George W&^mgton iMier Bo9h, Library of Coagreti, Manmscript 

1^6 UMLti^Aim HisTOsiauc MAmAzmm. 

attending lie session of tlie Legislature ; and Johnson, in com- 
pliance witli Washington's request, at once asked the House on 
December 11th for permission to bring in a bill giving the 
Potomac Company more speedy remedy against delinquent sub- 
scribers. The House acquiesced and asked him to prepare the 
measure.^^^ In advising Washington to this effect, Johnson 
sets forth his views in regard to tiie Federal Constitution. He 
says : 

Thomas Johnson to George Washington. 

Annapolis 11 December 1787. 


Your Favor of the 9th directed to Mr. Lee and myself and 
it's Inclosure came to Hand today very opportunely. The 
Gentlemen of the Assembly purpose to rise next Saturday and 
preparatory to it resolved in the Morning to receive no new 
Business after this day. This Circumstance precluded all 
Formality and Mr. Lee being absent I moved for Leave to bring 
in a Bill under the same Title as the Act passed in Virginia. 
Leave was granted and I expect there will be no Opposition in 
any Stage of it. I think at present to make a small Deviation 
by giving the President and Directors their choice to prosecute 
in the County Courts, which will generally be speedier, or in 
the General Court. 

Our Affairs are so embarrassed with a diversity of paper 
Money and paper Securities a sparing Imposition and an in- 
famous Collection and payment or rather non-payment of Taxes 
that Mr. Hartshorrfs repeated Application to our Treasury 
have proved fruitless nor can I say when there will be Money 
in Hand to answer the 300 £ Sterl. due. Some of our Debts 
are so pressing that a good many of us Delegates feel very 
uneasy and I yet hope a serious Attempt for an immediate 

Votes and Proceedings of the Bouse of Delegates, November, 1787, 
page 36. 

**^The Papers of George W<ish%ngton, Vol. 239, Library of Congrets, 
Manugcript Diyiaion. 



provision for them and that the Potomack Demand may be in- 
cluded. The present circumstances with respect to the future 
Seat of Congress^ in my Opinion call for vigorous Exertions to 
perfect the Navig[ation] of Potomack speedily and it is truly 
mortifying to see so little prospect of being supplied with the 
ess^tial Means. •Surely 5 or 600 Miles of inland Navigation 
added to the Central Situation and other Advantages would 
decide in favor of Potomack for the perman^t Seat of Con- 

Col° Fitzgerald wrote Mr. lee and myself to mention the 
Time we could meet at Shennadoah to enquire into Complaints 
against Mr. Steward.^^^ In his Absence I could only write 
him that I would attend at any Time that might be agreeable 
to you and the other Qcnt[lemen] after my Eetum home which 
will probably be the last of next week I wish Sir your Con- 
venience to be consulted and that it may be convenient and 
agreeable to you to make my House in your way. Very little 
Notice of the Time to meet will be sufficient for me and I dare 
say for Mr. Lee. 


The Levon [leaven] of your State is working in ours. The 
scale of power which I always suggested would be the most 
difficult to settle betwem the great and small States, as such, 
was in my Opinion very properly adjusted. Any necessary 
Guards for personal Liberty is the common Interest of all the 
citizens of America and if it is imagined that a defined power 
which does not comprehend the Interference with personal 
Kight needs negative Declarations I presume such may be 
added by the Federal Legislature with equal Efficacy and more 
propriety than might have been done by the Convention. 
Strongly and long impressed with an Idea that no Governm* 
can make a people happy unless they very generally entertain 
an Opinion that it is good in Form and well administered I 

*®* Rickardson Stuart, who had been chosen in 1785 by the President and 
Directors of the Potomac Company as assistant to Superintendent Eumsey. 



sun. much, disposed to give up a good deal in the form the least 
essential part. But those who are clamourous [the enemies of 
the Constitution] seem to me to be really more afraid of being 
restrained from doing what they ought not to do and being 
compelled to do what they ought to do tban of being obliged 
to do wbat there is no moral Obligation on them to do. I 
believe there is no American of Observation^ Eeflection and 
Candour but will acknowledge Man unhappily needs more 
Government than he imagined. 

I flatter myself that the plan recommended [tbe Federal 
Constitution] will be adopted in twelve of the thirteen States 
without conditions sine qua non but let the event be as it may 
I shall think myself with America in general greatly indebted 
to the Convention and possibly we may confess it when it may 
be too late to avail ourselves of their Moderation and Wisdom. 
You will pardon me my good Sir the Eifusions which I cannot 
restrain when on this Subject and believe me to be 

Witt very great respect 

Your most obed* Serv* 

Th. Johnson. 

Johnson's prompt action in paving the way for the passage 
of the now law for the Potomac Company was characteristic of 
him. Indeed, Washington would have been surprised if bis 
appeal had been met with anything but an immediate response. 
Johnson presented the draft of the bill to tbe House on De- 
cember 13th.; andj altbougb tbe Legislature adjourned sine die 
on the 17thj the measure was ready in ample time for Execu- 
tive approval. The correspondence is but another illustra- 
tion of how Washington relied on Johnson in time of peace 
as well as in war. 

Nor was there anything remarkable about the philosophical 
concepts which were embodied by Johnson in the above letter 
to Mount Vernon. Up to. the present time in his life, Johnson 

Votes and Proceedings of the House of Delegates, November, 1787, 
pages 41 and 48; Laws of Marylandy Kovember, 1787, Chapter XXV. 

had been too busy, too practical, to give mucli tbouglit to gen- 
eralizations; but now, at 55, lie was approaching that age in 
life when he was beginning to reflect and philosophize. But, 
even so, the two platitudes which he included in his reply were 
in no respect extraordinary. Indeed, they were the comnaon 
thought of the day. 

The first idea — "iVo Govemm^ can make a people happy 
unless they very generally entertain an Opinion that it is good 
in Form and well administered — ^had be^ expressed by Ben- 
jamin Franklin in his memorable address at tie close of the 
Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia on September 17, 
1787, when he urged the members of the Convention to sign 
the Constitution. " There is no form of Government," said 
the venerable patriot in the address, read for him by Mr. 
Wilson, " but what may be a blessing to the people if well 

administered Much of the strength and efficiency of 

any Government in procuring and securing happinesss to the 
people, depends on opinion, on the general opinion of the good- 
ness of the Government, as well as the wisdom and integrity 
of its governors/' It is known that Doctor Pranklin sent 
copies of the address in his own haiidwriting to several of his 
friends, and one of these soon found its way into print.^^® It 
is, therefore, possible that Johnson, even though he had been 
" strongly and long impressed with the idea, was prompted 
to pen the words to Washington by the address of the Phila- 
delphia philosopher. It is also possible that both Pranklin 
and Johnson had been impressed by the lines written by Alex- 
ander Pope in 1732 in the Essay on Man: • 

"For forms of government, let fools contest; 
V^ate^er is best administered, is best." 

At all events, the thought expressed by Franklin and Johnson 
is rather commonplace. In all ages, statesmen and scholars 
have declared that the success of any Government depends upon 

The Records of the Federal C&mmfion (Max Farrand), Vol. 11, page 
641, note. 


the people thanselves. Edmund Burke declared: " There never 
was long a corrupt Government of a virtuous people." Disraeli 
said : We put too much faith in systems, and look too little 
to men/^ Samuel Smiles wrote in one of his books : Indeed, 
all experience serves to prove that the worth and strength of a 
State depend far less upon the form of its institutions than 
upon the character of its men." President Roosevelt declared: 
" I do not care if you had the most perfect laws that could be 
devised by the wit of man or the wit of angels, they would not 
amount to anything if the average man was not a pretty decent 
fellow." Henry Van Dyke, theologian, diplomat and man of 
letters, says in one of his essays: "Every possible form of 
Govenmient has been tried, and found both good and bad. 
They would all be intolerable but for the quiet people who 
trust in the Lord and do good." And in a treatise on the Con- 
stitution of the United States, W. W. Willoughby says : " In 
every State iJie very existence of its Government, the extent of 
its powers, and the manner of their exercise, is ultimately 
dependent upon the acquiescence of the people." 

Likewise, the second platitude in Johnson's reply to Wash- 
ington — Man unhappily needs more Govermnent than he 
imagined — ^was in no sense unusual or surprising. Wash- 
ington himself avowed: "Mankind, when left to themselves, 
are unfit for their own GOTemment." John Jay declared 
mournfully : " The mass of men are neither wise nor good.^ 
Young John Marshall said: "I fear that these have truth on 
their side who say that Man is incapable of governing himself." 
The same view was taken by Hamilton, Madison, and other 
outstanding friends of the Eederal Constitution. It was 
natural that Johnson accepted the view of the Federalists, be- 
cause he had believed for a number of years that the people 
themselv^ were largely responsible for the country's desperate 
condition under the Articles of Confederation. 

However, the letter penned by Johnson at Annapolis before 
the close of 1787, shows his prophetic vision. Already, but a 
short time after the adjournment of the Constitutional Con- 



vention, tlie far-sighted Maryland statesman not only assured 
Washington that* the Stat^ would vote for unconditional rati- 
fication of the Federal Constitution, but he also looked forward 
to the day when the Capital of the Kation would be peraia- 
nently located along the Potomac, 

{To he continued.) 


These extracts are taken from two old family Bibles which 
formerly belonged to Judge Moses Levy (1756-1826) the dis- 
tinguished Philadelphia jurist, and which are now owned by 
his descendant, Mr. J. J. Milligan, of Baltimore. Judge Levy 
married, June 21st, 1791, Mary Pearce of Poplar Neck, Cecil 
County, Maryland, to whom the " Tilghman Letters now ap- 
pearing in the Magazine were writtm. 

One of these Bibles which contains only a few Levy entri^, 
has wafered in it on a separate sheet, a number of Pearce en- 
tries relating to his own immediate family, made by Henry 
Ward Pearce, Sr. (1736-1828 ?). The other book is an inter- 
esting old Hebrew Bible the entries in which were evidently 
begun by Judge Levy^s grandfather, Moses Levy (died 1728) 
of New York, and are a full record of this family for several 
generations. Owing to the great prominence of both the 
Pearces and Levys in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
the records seem wojrth publishing in full. As a number of 
the entries in the Pearce Bible are defective or incomplete, 
where possible the corrections or additions have been added in 
brackets from the register of .Surewsbary Par^, Cecil Counly, 
in which the Pearces lived. 

Memoranda i-eom Peaece-Lbvt 

Benj. Pearce married to Margaret Ward, daughter of Henry 
ward, 1732. [July 31, 1734] 



Elizabeth Pearce, first daugliter of Benj. Pearce and Margaret 

Pearce, liis wife, born Sept. 29, lY— [Sept 29, 1Y35] 
Henry Ward Pearce, first son of the sd. Benj. and Margaret 

Pearce, born 1Y36. [Dec. 6, 1Y36] 
Benj. Pearce, second son of Benj. Pearce and Margaret, bom 

1Y39 [Apr. 13, 1Y39] and departed this life November 

30 following. 

Benjamin Ward Pearce, third son of the sd Benj. and Mar- 
garet, born Sept. 15, 1Y40, .died September 29, 1Y43. 

William Pearce, fourth son of the sd Benj. and Margaret, 
born April 8, 17 [42] and departed this life Sept. 16, 1Y43. 

Andrew Pearce, fifth son of the sd Benj. and Margaret, bom 
October 10, 1744, and was lost at sea in the year — 

William Pearce, sixth son of the said Benj. and Margaret, 
born Jany 14, 1748. 

Mary Pearce, second daughter of the said Benj. and Margaret, 
born 28th , 1750. [Aug. 28, 1751] 

Margaret Pearce, wife of the above Boiij. departed this life 
June 30, 1755. 

Benjamin Pearce, departed this life at Philadelphia, April 9, 
1756. [Apr. 10, 1756 in his 45th year] 

I, Henry Ward Pearce, son of the above Benjamin Pearce 
and Margaret Pearce, his wife, was married to Anna Statia 
Carrol, youngest daughter of Dominic Carrol and Mary his 
wife, on the — January 16, 1759. 

Henry Ward Pearce, first son of the sd. Henry and Anna Statia 

his wife bom June 23, 1760. 
Mary Pearce, first daughter of the ad. Henry and Anna Statia, 

born October 22, 1762. 
Matthew Pearce, second son of the sd. Henry and Anna Statia, 

born August 21, 1764. 
Margaret Pearce, second daughter of the sd. Henry and Anna 

Statia, born Aug. 21, 1764. 
Benj. Pearce, third son of the sd. Henry and Anna Statia, 

born April 12, 1770, and departed this life August 4, 



Anna Statia Pearce departed this life April 20, 177G. 

I, Henry Ward Pearce, was married to Rachel Eelf e, young- 
est daughter of Tench Frencis and Elizabeth his wife, and 
Eelict of John Eelfe of Philadelphia, March 6, 1776. 

Maria Pearce, daughter of the said Henry and Rachel, born 
and departed this life ]N"oveniber 22, following 

Benjamin Francis Pearce, son of Henry Ward Pearce and 
Eechel, his wife, was bom Sept 20, 1780. 

The alteration in the birth of the above Benjamin Francis 
Pearce, was made on the discovery of the mistake by me, H. 
W. Pearce, and departed this life on the 12th of September, 
1782 [1802], at Sea in latitude 43.2 K Long. 48.24. Fo 
vices lurked beneath the mask of candour and sincerity, no 
meanness ever obscured the lustre of his generosity and benevo- 
lence. His thoughts and actions were alike regulated by 
Honor, truth and Liberality. Hk l^art was a stranger to 
deceit and his tongue disdained to utter what his judgment 
disproved and the graces of his person but faintly reflected the 
innat© Beauty of a heart replete with every endearing Quality. 
Thia tributa to his memory by his father Henry W^. Pearce. 

Henry Ward Pearce, son of Henry W. Pearce and Anna 
Statia, his wife, departed this life on .the 26th of March 1805 
at Ool. Richd. Tilghman's in Queeai Ann^ Oo. and was there 
interred. He was an aiFectionate husband, a dutiful son and 
an honest man. Henry W**. Pearce. Rachel Pearce departed 
this life on the 25th day of Jany, 1808, and was deposited in 
Ae family vault of her father. 

21 June 1791. I Moses Levy of the city of Philadelphia, 
son of Sampson Levy, merchant, deecased, and Martha 
his wife, was married to Mary Pearce, daughter of 
Henry Ward Pearce, of Cecil County, in the state of 
Maryland Gentleman and Annastasia, his wife. 

1 April, 1793. My daughter, Henrietta Maria was born, she 
was soon after Chrislmed by BiAop White. In the 


UAMTLAmy wm:0wm^ uhm^mm. 

winter following gte was innoculated fot the smallpox 
and took it. 

13 July 1798. My daughter Martha Mary-Anne Levy was 
born. She was soon after baptized by the Eev. James 
Abercrombie. She has also taken the smallpox by 

I was born on the 9th August 1Y56. 
My wife Mary on the 23 Oct'' 1Y62. 
I am the son of Sampson Levy who died on the 23d 
March 1Y81. 

My mother, Martha Levy died on the 24th March, 1807, 
aged 76 years. 

My Father-in-law, Henry Ward Pearce was bom on 
Sassafras ITeck, in Caecil County, Maryland. He 
is the son of Benjamin Pearce and Margaret, his 
wife. His father Benjamin died in the city of 
Philadelphia, in 1756, as he informs me. His 
grandfather was also named Benjamin. 

Margaret, the grandmother of my wife was the daugh- 
ter of Oapt. Henry Ward, who married an imme- 
diate descendent of Augustine Herman. Mar- 
garet died in 1765 Jan. 
* Annastasia Pearce, the mother of my wife was the 
daughter of Dominic Carrol. She died in the 
year aged 

Levy Family Hebrew Bible Records. 
(Leaf from an older Bible wafered in.) 

My Dear Childrin — or to whichsoever of your hands this may 
fall into. — 

This Book is an Extraordinary Hebrew Bible with annota- 
tions or Commentaries on the Text — 

It was a favourite Book belonging to My Dear Father & 
Contained the hand writing of him & My Dear Mother for 
whom I retain the Greatest Affection notwifliitajftding the long 



time they have been Dead — tlie former I knew little of but 
the Latter I well remember — in this Book is by them set down 
or wrote the names and Birth of all their Ohildrin, & the 
Death of Some of them by My Self — I therefore recommend 
this Book to your Most particular Care as an old family Bible 
with which I hope you will never part but to your latest pos- 
terity — as I regard it for My Parents Sake as well as its being 
an Extraordinary Book of itself — So I hope you will Show 
the Same regard & affection to My request that I do to My 
Parents memmorary — am My Dear Child y^ Affectionate 

Sam^n Levy 

N'ew Castle June 4, 1779. 

Turn over 

My Father Lived in the City of 'New York in w^^ place 
both him & my Mother Died the former in the year 1728 — and 
the Latter in the year 1740— 

My fondness for my Parents made me fond of what they 
Esteemed. I hope my childrin will have no less affection 
for me — 

Samson Levy 

Moses Levy had children by his first wife — Orace was his 
Second. Grace Levy's children 7. 

Rachel born February ye 6, 1719. In London. 
Miriem bom February ye 5, 1720. In New York. 
Hester bom Febraary ye 28, 1721. In New York 
Samson bom August 19, 1722. In New York. 
Hana bom August 1723. In New York. 

Binjamen bom August 1726. In New York. 
Joseph bom June ye 1, 1728. In New York. 

Miriam Levy Died in New York on Saturday Morning ye 
4*^ Febraary 1748/9. 

Hannah Isaacs Died in New York Wednesday April 3^ 
1751 or ye 5^^ day of Omer. 



Nathan Levy Died in PLilad*. on fry day December 21^* 
1753 at 7 in ye morning. 

Abigal Franks Died in ISTew York Sunday May 16*^ 1756 
in ye afternoon. 

Isaac Levy Died in Philadelphia March 1777. 

Joseph Levy Died in South Carolina. 

This Departed this Life in her 46 year of age Mrs. Grace 
Hays ye 14*^ Octo^ 1740. 

This day Departed her life Miriam Levy in New York aged 
28 years rebruary 4*^ 1748/9. 

Wednesday April 3^ 1761 Hannah Levy or Hannah Isaacs 
Died in "New York. 

Fryday December 21^* 1753 this Day at 7 o'clock in ye 
morning My Brother !N'athan Levy Died in Philadelphia. 

Samson Levy's Son ITathan Levy was bom in Philad* on 
thnrsday August 15*^ 1754 at 45 minutes after ten in the 
Evening which answers with ye 28^^ or :5514 by our 

Acco^ & was Circumcised on ye fryday 8 days after by Jacob 
Moses of New York — 

Samson Levy's Son Moses Levy was bom in Philadelphia 
on Monday August 9*^ 1756 at abaute half An Hour After 
Two in the After noon which answers with ye 

Samson Levy's Son Joseph Levy Was bom in Philadelphia 
on Sunday December 10*^ 1758 at half an hour after Elevm 
in the forenoon it being the 10*^ Day of the Moon's age — and 
Died on Fryday March 28*^ 1760 at half an hour after three 
in the aftemoon. 

This day departed this life in her 46 year of her age Mrs. 
Grace Hays Thursday ye 14*h October 1740. 

My mother Grace Levy was Marrid to Mr. David Hays of 
New York who's wife She was at the time of her Death. 



{Contimted from Vol. XXI, p. 73.) 

January 8*^ 1744 


Inclosed is an order to the Skipper to Take your Tobacco on 
the condition therein mentioned at five Shillings Sterling ^ 
Hogshead; for you are sensible that it would not answer to 
have less than f ourty hhd®. or to stay too long for it. 

In case you aprove and put the Tobacco on Board Please to 
suply the People with fifty pounds of Pork and fifty poiinds 
Bread. . . . 
To Mr Jo^ Wordrop 

P. S. If you put Less than forty Hogsheads of Tobacco on 
Board & keep her to Load longer than the above time Promised, 
I shall be obliged to Charge you Twenty shillings Sterling a 
Day nor can let the Vessell for less. . . . 

January 10^^ 1Y44 


I Eec^ Yours very kind and obligeing Letter of this date in 
which I am very much obliged and for which and your kind 
Expressions I return sincere thanks, and can with great Truth 
assure you that I never conceived the least Prejudice on the 
Action you naention. 

Poutrotry no doubt will Endeavour what he can in my 
Prejudice with the Advice of those he hinted to me, but that 
I attributed not in the least to you he told me that Eidgely 
and his Son in Law had offered him money for his Eight, this 
I believe and that he is Prompted by them. Yesterday he 
offered to Accomodate and Eelease I paying him Ten pounds 
& his Costs I refused the Ooets but oo. c(^idering that tho my 



Right was Indisputable yet to leave no Room even for a Pre- 
tence I Wrote to MJ Bordly to let him know I would pay the 
Costs Which I Imagined to be about 600 lbs. Tobacco and to 
draw a Release, since which have heard nothing of the matter 
till the Receipt of Tours. 

I assure you Sir my claim on Young Pouteng is fair and hon- 
est and my Right to the Land Independant of his is very clear 
yet as I have honestly paid for that I ought to have it and I 
hope that Neither you nor any Gentleman in Maryland will 
think me capable of so Vile an Action as forgeing his Pathers 
hand It happens well that one of the Evidences a man of known 
honour aud Honesty is Living and Perfectly Remembers the 
Matter and the Other Evidence. 

I am sorry that any Expression should drop from Brad- 
ley to give you offence, but perhaps the matter has been agra- 
vated by the Young man. 

It would be very acceptable to me that Ridgely as your 
Relation, would behave in a manner becoming a good Neigh- 
bour I am sure his conduct herein and to me is contrary and 
I never deserved the Treatment he gives Champarty and Bar- 
ratry are Very Unneighbourly things. 

Pray Sir believe that I am and allways shall be with very 
great Esteem and Respect. 

To M.^ Edward Dorsey 

P. S. So great an Aversion I have to contention or Litiga- 
tion of any Sort that I will referr the Matter between the 
Young man & I to you or any other Judicious Gentleman of 
Integrity. . . . 

Annapolis 10**^ January 1744 


I find by your Weights at the head of Severn that they want 
28Ib in Each Ton which the Twenty Eight Ton received there, 
I aprdbend will turn out fihort. You are Sensible that a 


Quarter of a hundred is allowed in every Ton over tlie Twenty 
hundred to make up for Sand &c. this will be deducted at the 
scale in London and I believe you find that freight & Duty 
Attend the Quantity ITorainally shiped and not what it weighs 
at the King Scales which unless Shiped makes a great Loss. 

I desire the favour you will Let Captain AUingham have 
Two Ton more with the 7 lb deficiency in the 28 Ton to make 
up thirty Ton I understand you have some of Your own on 
Board I suppose as all is of a Side it will agree; and one part 
will not Eat up the other so we shall know if any deficiency 
Where it Kises. 

To Eidi^ Snowden, Patuxen Iron W(M*ks 

Annapolis Maryland Feb. 6*** 1744 


I Keceived yours of the 21^* & 29th Qf iJ'ovember last with 
my Aoc**. Current, and a Barrdl of Limes by Johnson for 
which Return you thanks These times are very uncertain and 
Insureance so high, and Precarious that there is no ventureing 
on Business, and with us the difficulty of getting Masters, or 
sailors fitt for service makes it Impracticable to do any thing 
that may answer. 

The Ballance I have in your hands I shall take Proper 
opportunity to have goods for or order it to Eichard Bennitt 
Esq^. either of which methods j^ou may depend I shall take, 
which I Bequest you will observe and of w^^ I shall accord- 
ingly advise when I do either. 

If your Limes in season shall be obliged to you if youl send 
me a Barrell of Good ones. 
To Coddrington Oarringtcm, Merchant Barbadoes 

Annapolis in Maryland Ss* 

On the Thirteenth day of February in the year of our Lord 
God 1744 Came before me Kobert Gordon Esq^. one of tte 



Provincial Justices of the Province of Maryland Cliarles Car- 
roll Mercliant and made O'atli on the Holy Evangelists of 
Almighty God That on the 25*^ day of December in the year 
of Our Lord 1741 he the said Charles wrote a Letter to 
Samuell Hyde merchant in London a Paragraph of which was 
in the following words or to the effect to Wit. 

I must also Eequest that you will procure an Insurance 
to be made for me of Five hundred pounds Sterling on the 
schooner Annapolis square Steamed. Burthen Thirty Ton or 
thereabouts Alex^. Scougal Master or whoever shall be master 
at the Port of Annapolis in Maryland and from thence to the 
Island of Barbadoes there and back again to the Port of An- 
napolis in Maryland, the Premio of which with your Com- 
mission please to Charge to my Acco*. 

And that in pursuance thereof and trusting to and depend- 
ing on the Faith and Credit of the Insurance aforesaid directed 
to be made he shipped on Board the same Vessell The Goods 
mentioned in the Bill of Ladeing, signed by the said Master 
a true Copy whereof he deposeth to be in liie following Words 

Shipped in good order and well conditioned by Charles Car- 
roll of Annapolis in Maryland Merchant in and upon the Good 
ship the schooner Annapolis whereof is master Alexand^ 
Scougal and now Eideing at anchor in Severn Kiver and by 
Gods Grace bound for the Island of Barbadoes, That is to say 
two Thousand Two hundred and nineteen Bushells of Indian 
Corn, ninety Bushells of Pease, one hh^ of Dry'd Fish, Twmty 
four Barrells of Bread, Three Barrells of Red Herrings and 
are to be delivered in like good order and well conditioned to 
Codrington Carrington Merchant there or to his assigns 
Freight froe. Dangers of the Seas Excited. In Witness 
whereof the master of the said Vessel hath affirmed to three 
Bills of Loading all of the same Tenor and Date one of which 
being fulfilled the other two to stand void so God send the good 
ship to her Port in safety. Dated at Annapolis in Maryland 
Mapdi 20^^ 1Y41. 

Alex', Scougal 


And that the said Loading contained and cost him the said 
Charles with the Charges of Collection on Board the Sum of 
Two hundred Eighty three pounds Eleven Shillings and Ten 
pence Sterling exclusive of the Freight amounting to one Hun- 
dred and thirty seven pounds seven sh® and seven pence half 
penny Sterling as by the following Acoo*. 

To 2219 Bushs Com at % ster ^ bushell 

To 90 Bushells Pease @ 2/6 

To 44811) Dry'd Eish at 1^ 

To 3 Barrells Herring at 20/ 

To 24 Barrells Ship Bread 9^ 25381b nett 

at 12/6 ^ 0* 
To 24 Barrells and packing 
To 1 hogshead 

249.. 12.. 9 
11.. 5.. — 
1.. 11. 4 
3., — — 

15„ 17., 3 

1.. 16.. — 
3.. 6 

£283.. 11.. 10 

To the Common Freight of 2309 Bush- 
ells of Com and Pease from hence to 
Barbftdoes 18^ that Currency which 
is Equal to 13%s Ster W Bushell 

To freight 29 Barrells 1 hh^ make 2% 
Ton at £4 — Barbadoes Currency ^ 
Ton which is equal to £3.. Ster. 

129.. 17.. 71/0 

7.. 10.. ~ 

£137.. 7.. 7 

And the said Charles Carroll Deposeth that the said Vessell 
with the said Goods on Board as mentioned in the said Bill of 
Loading and Accoimt about the 24*^ day of March 1741 De- 
parted from the Port of Annapolis aforesaid on hier Voyage 
to the said Island of Barbadoes and that the same Goods Ves- 
sell and Voyage and no other was the goods Vessell and Voyage 
which he the said Charles Carroll desired the said Samuel 



Hyde in the aforesaid Paragraph of his Letter to procure to be 
Insured, and lie the said Charles Carroll, further Deposeth 
and saith that the said Vessell made no other Voyage than that 
herein before mentioned until October 1742 after her Return 
from the former, nor no other in Consequence of or on the 
Credit of the Insurance aforesaid ordered to be made. Except 
that in March 1741 herein before mentioned. 

And the said Charles further Deposeth That M'^ Codrington 
Carrington Merehunt in Barbadoes (to whom the said Vessell 
was Consigned) wrote to him that the said Goods herein 
before mentioned were Damaged on Board the said Vessell in 
her Passage from Maryland to the Island of Barbadoes by 
stress of Weather and that he had the Cargo Viewed by Mes'^®. 
John Bayly and Paul Bedford Merchants in Barbadoes some- 
time in May 1742. That in answer thereto the Deponent 
wrote to said Carrington to transmitt all the Proofs and Papers 
relateing to the said Dammage to Samuel Hyde Merchant 
in London who had directions to procure an Insurance on the 
said Vessell the Voyage. 

Sworn before me the Day and 
year above Written 

Robert Gordon 

Annapolis Maryland ss^. 

I John Brice Deputy notary Publick constituted aad ap- 
pointed by the Honourable Edmund Jennings Esq^. Secretary 
and notary Publick within this his Lordship's the Right Hon- 
ourable the Lord Propriety® Province of Maryland by legal 
authority duely admitted and sworn dwelling at the City of 
Annapolis in the Province aforesaid do hereby certifie and 
attest that Robert Gordon Esq'', the person signing the Depos*^ 
hereunto annexed is one of his Lordship's Justices of the Pro- 
vincial Court of the Province aforesaid and that to all Depo- 
sitions before him so made in the said Province and by him 
so signed of what nature or kind soever they be, full faith 

ACCoui^T Amy letter books oi- m. p^ABLES OJjmCMJh. 213 

and Credit is and ought to be given in Justice Court and 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto 
set my hand and aflBxed my usual 
Seal of Office this. 

{To he continued.) 


February 8^ 1926. — The regular meeting of the Society was 
held tonight with the President in the chair. 

The President read a letter from Mr. Henry May Gittings, 
presenting to the Society the " Eagle " badge of the Order of 
the Cincinnati; of General Otho Holland Williams of Mary- 
land, which is one of the first made. President Harris gave a 
brief and interesting description of the " Eagle " and invited 
the members to examine it at the close of the meeting. 

The following persons, previously nominated, were elected 
to Active Membership in the Society : 

Mrs. Edward S. Hall, Isaac N. Shipley, Esq., 

MifiMS Virginia A. Wilson, Jacob France, Esq., 
Mim Virginia Berkley Bowie, Edward E. Owings, M.B., 
H. E. Tabler, M.D. 

and to Associate Membership : 

Miss Elizabeth Hilleary Beall, John A. Beall, Esq., 
H. C. Groome, Esq. 

The following deaths were reported from among the mem- 
bership : 

Dr. Bernard C. Steiner, Messrs. Riohard Curzon Hoffman, 
John S. Gittings, William H. Maltbie, Thomas H. Gaither, 
Charles McFaddon. 


Mr. Diebnan on belialf of the Publication Committee, read 
the following resolution, which was unanimously carried: 

" The Maryland Historical Society mourns the death of Ber- 
nard Christian Steiner. Eor more than thirty years; as mem- 
ber and officer, his tireless industry in the investigation of 
Maryland History, and his devotion to the activities of the 
Society made the number of his printed contributions to the 
story of this Commonwealth unprecedented from the hand of 
any single writer. 

^^As editor of the Archives of Maryland he performed for 
nine years a laborious duty with care and judgment, to the 
great credit of the State and of the Society which entrusted him 
this task, and with the applause of all students of American 

While at the same time in charge of a complicated public 
Library system his investigating spirit carried him beyond the 
confines of the State, as may be seen in his contributions to the 
Historical Studies of the Johns Hopkins University, in the 
publications of the United States Bureau of Education, and 
in the book lists of American publishers. 

" The Society joins in the general sadness at the sudden 
passing of one whose influence was felt at many vital points 
in the life of the City, but desires especially to record its grate- 
ful remembrance of the loyal cooperation and the contagious 
enthusiasm with which he took part in its historical activities. 

" Resoi-ved : that this memorial be spread upon the minutes 
of the Society and that copies be smt to members of his family." 

The President referred to the receipt of a gift some time ago 
from William Power Wilson, of three portraits, being those of 
John McKim, Jr., Mrs. Margaret Telfair McKim, his wife, 
and Mrs. Ann Telfair Timothy, the sister of his wife. John 
McKim, Jr., and his wife were great grandparents of Mr. 
Wilson. It was reported that this gift had been followed by a 
donation from Mr. Wilson, of $500. The foUowiag resolu- 
tion was presented and carried : 



" It is tlie understanding of the Maryland Historical Society 
that these three portraits are to be held by it in perpetuity and 
maintained in a suitable manner, with the provision that should 
the said Society, for any reason, cease to function, these three 
portraits will be by said Society conveyed to the person then 
living who shall be, so far as said Society shall be able to ascer- 
tain, nearest in descent to said John McKim, Jr., but should 
it be that two or three persons are then ascertained to be of 
the same degree of kin to said John McKim, Jr., then said por- 
traits are to be conveyed by said Society to that one of such 
nearest kin as shall be adjudged by the then President of the 
said Society to be the individual most fit to care for and pre- 
serve the said portraits." 

March 8, 1926, — The regular meeting of the Society was 
held tonight with the President in the chair. 

The following persons, previously nominated, were elected 
to active membership in the Society: 

Mrs. John Franklin Turner, Mrs. Jacob France. 

and to Associate Membership : 
Carroll Sprigg, Esq. 

The President stated that after a correspondence of about a 
year with the Secretary of State, the Society had been granted 
permission to remove the set of " Standard Weights and Meas- 
ures" from the office of the State Board of Health, to the fire- 
proof building of the Society where they would be properly 
cared for, but they are to remain the property of the State. 

The President spoke of the Penn-Oalvert Breviate, which 
through the courtesy of Mr. John W. Garrett had been sent 
from Philadelphia to the Society on approval. It developed, 
however, that the Society already had in its possession a very 
handsomely bound copy of this Breviate. 



Attention was called to tlie two pictures wliicli were put on 
exhibition in this Society by Mrs. John Boss Key, wife of the 
artist who was a grandson of Francis Scott Key. One canvas 
is of the birthplace in Frederick County, Maryland ; the other 
of the residence and law office in Georgetown, D. 0. of Francis 
Scott Key. 

The following deaths were reported from among our mem- 
bers: Mrs. Edward Shippen, Mrs. Thomas Baxter Gresham, 
Mr. J. B. Noel Wyatt. 

There being no further business, the President introduced 
Vice-President Thorn who was to read a paper on " A Letter 
written in 1857 by an American Naval Officer on a visit to 
Jerusalem and its neighborhood." As Mr. Thom was not feel- 
ing well, he asked Mr. John L. Sanf ord to read the paper for 
him, which Mr. Sanford did, explaining that the naval officer by 
whom this letter was written was Commander William May, 
son of Dr. Frederick May of Washington, and brother of the 
late Henry May of this city. Commander May died October 
10th, 1861 in his 46th year. 

!April 12j 1926. — ^The regular meeting of the Society was 
held tonight with the President in the chair. 

Mr. Dielman exhibited a remarkable battle ax or halberd sup- 
posed to have been found near where a " Pirate vessel was 
sunk off Tangier Island about 300 years ago. The halberd was 
later to be sent to the Metropolitan Museum for investigation. 

The following persons, previously nominated, were elected to 
Active Membersiiip in the Society: 

Dr. John H. Bouse, J. Marsh Matthews, Esq., 

Dalrymple Parran, Esq., Frederick Wm. Wood, Esq., 
Rignal Baldwin, Esq., Mrs. Frederick Wm. Wood, 

Wm. T. Shackelford, Esq., Mrs. John S. McEldowney, 
Miss Mildred Law Murdock, 


and to Associate Membership : 
Dr. Arthur V. Hargett. 

President Harris announced that Commodore Furlong of the 
ITavy Department had come to the Society for information 
about " Pulaski's Bamaer " and to see the original banner in 
our possession. Subsequently a letter had been received from 
Secretary of the Navy, Curtis D. Wilbur, requesting permis- 
sion to photograph the banner for exhibition purposes at the 
Sesqui-Centennial to be held in Philadelphia this year. 

The President stated that a number of additional pieces of 
silverware and furniture had been left to the Society by the 
will of the late J. B. Noel Wyatt, to be added to the Wyatt Col- 
lection already in the possession of this Society. He added 
that the sum of $10^000. will be added to the Endowment Tund 
from the estate of Mr. Wyatt, after the death of Mrs. Nichol 
and her daughter who receive the income during their lifetime. 

The President stated that throTigh the generosity of one of 
its members, whose name he was not at liberty to disclose, the 
Society had been presented with a photostat machine. The 
equipment for the machine will cost about $300., towards which 
Mrs. Robert M. Littlejohn, of New York, a. life member of ihe 
Society, had made a contribution of $100. 

Judge Walter I. Dawkins offered the following motions 
which were xmanimously carried: 

" Resolved : That the sincere and hearty thanks of the So- 
ciety be expressed to the donor of the photostat machine for his 
great generosity and for this renewed evideiice of his concern 
for the prosperity of the Society." 

"Resolved: That the sincere and hearty thanks of the So- 
ciety be expressed to Mrs. Robert M. Littlejohn for her gener- 
ous gift of $100. towards the lighting equipment for the photo- 
stat inachine.'' 

The President stated that Miss Eleanor S. Cohen had pre- 



sented the Society witli a gift of $1000. to be added to tlie 
Endowiaeiit Fimd as a memorial to lier parents Israel and 
Cecilia E. Colien. 

Mr. Tliom made the following motion which was unani- 
mously carried: 

"Resolved: That the Maryland Historical Society express 
its sincere and hearty appreciation to Miss Eleanor S. Cohen, 
for her generous gift of one thousand dollars to be added to the 
Endowment Fund as a Memorial to her parents Israel and 
Cecilia E. Cohen.'' 

It was stated that after a considerable correspondence of 
about a year with the Secretary of State, this Society had been 
made the custodian of the historic set of Standard Weights and 
Measures of the State of Maryland. These are to be kept in 
the fire-proof building of the Society, but are to remain the 
property of the State of Maryland. 

Dr. Henry J. Berkley stated that the late John H. Alex- 
ander, the first State geologist of Maryland, had been instru- 
mental in making the set of Standard Weights and Measures 
for the State. Mr. Alesxander was one of the first members of 
this Society. 

The following deaths were reported from among our mem- 
bership : 

Genl. George E. Randolph, Harry E. Humrichouse. 

Ju(%e Walter I. Dawkins presented to the Society on behalf 
of the estate of the late E. F. Gorgas, a copy of the " Dental 
Enterprise'*' edited and published by Henry Snowden, Balti- 
more, 1858 etc. Part of Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4 and Vol. 2, ISTo. 9. 
It was moved and unanimously carried that the thanks of the 
Society be expressed to the donw. 

There being no further business the President introduced 
the speaker of the evening, Judge T. Scott Offutt, who read a 
paper on Some Notes on Southern Maryland."